Spring Framework

org.springframework.context.annotation
Annotation Type Bean


@Target(value={METHOD,ANNOTATION_TYPE})
@Retention(value=RUNTIME)
@Documented
public @interface Bean

Indicates that a method produces a bean to be managed by the Spring container.

Overview

The names and semantics of the attributes to this annotation are intentionally similar to those of the <bean/> element in the Spring XML schema. For example:

     @Bean
     public MyBean myBean() {
         // instantiate and configure MyBean obj
         return obj;
     }

Bean Names

While a name attribute is available, the default strategy for determining the name of a bean is to use the name of the @Bean method. This is convenient and intuitive, but if explicit naming is desired, the name attribute may be used. Also note that name accepts an array of Strings. This is in order to allow for specifying multiple names (i.e., aliases) for a single bean.

     @Bean(name={"b1","b2"}) // bean available as 'b1' and 'b2', but not 'myBean'
     public MyBean myBean() {
         // instantiate and configure MyBean obj
         return obj;
     }

Scope, DependsOn, Primary, and Lazy

Note that the @Bean annotation does not provide attributes for scope, depends-on, primary, or lazy. Rather, it should be used in conjunction with @Scope, @DependsOn, @Primary, and @Lazy annotations to achieve those semantics. For example:

     @Bean
     @Scope("prototype")
     public MyBean myBean() {
         // instantiate and configure MyBean obj
         return obj;
     }

@Bean Methods in @Configuration Classes

Typically, @Bean methods are declared within @Configuration classes. In this case, bean methods may reference other @Bean methods in the same class by calling them directly. This ensures that references between beans are strongly typed and navigable. Such so-called 'inter-bean references' are guaranteed to respect scoping and AOP semantics, just like getBean() lookups would. These are the semantics known from the original 'Spring JavaConfig' project which require CGLIB subclassing of each such configuration class at runtime. As a consequence, @Configuration classes and their factory methods must not be marked as final or private in this mode. For example:

 @Configuration
 public class AppConfig {
     @Bean
     public FooService fooService() {
         return new FooService(fooRepository());
     }
     @Bean
     public FooRepository fooRepository() {
         return new JdbcFooRepository(dataSource());
     }
     // ...
 }

@Bean Lite Mode

@Bean methods may also be declared within classes that are not annotated with @Configuration. For example, bean methods may be declared in a @Component class or even in a plain old class. In such cases, a @Bean method will get processed in a so-called 'lite' mode.

Bean methods in lite mode will be treated as plain factory methods by the container (similar to factory-method declarations in XML), with scoping and lifecycle callbacks properly applied. The containing class remains unmodified in this case, and there are no unusual constraints for the containing class or the factory methods.

In contrast to the semantics for bean methods in @Configuration classes, 'inter-bean references' are not supported in lite mode. Instead, when one @Bean-method invokes another @Bean-method in lite mode, the invocation is a standard Java method invocation; Spring does not intercept the invocation via a CGLIB proxy. This is analogous to inter-@Transactional method calls where in proxy mode, Spring does not intercept the invocation — Spring does so only in AspectJ mode.

For example:

 @Component
 public class Calculator {
     public int sum(int a, int b) {
         return a+b;
     }

     @Bean
     public MyBean myBean() {
         return new MyBean();
     }
 }

Bootstrapping

See @Configuration Javadoc for further details including how to bootstrap the container using AnnotationConfigApplicationContext and friends.

BeanFactoryPostProcessor-returning @Bean methods

Special consideration must be taken for @Bean methods that return Spring BeanFactoryPostProcessor (BFPP) types. Because BFPP objects must be instantiated very early in the container lifecycle, they can interfere with processing of annotations such as @Autowired, @Value, and @PostConstruct within @Configuration classes. To avoid these lifecycle issues, mark BFPP-returning @Bean methods as static. For example:

     @Bean
     public static PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer ppc() {
         // instantiate, configure and return ppc ...
     }
By marking this method as static, it can be invoked without causing instantiation of its declaring @Configuration class, thus avoiding the above-mentioned lifecycle conflicts. Note however that static @Bean methods will not be enhanced for scoping and AOP semantics as mentioned above. This works out in BFPP cases, as they are not typically referenced by other @Bean methods. As a reminder, a WARN-level log message will be issued for any non-static @Bean methods having a return type assignable to BeanFactoryPostProcessor.

Since:
3.0
Author:
Rod Johnson, Costin Leau, Chris Beams, Juergen Hoeller, Sam Brannen
See Also:
Configuration, Scope, DependsOn, Lazy, Primary, Component, Autowired, Value

Optional Element Summary
 Autowire autowire
          Are dependencies to be injected via autowiring?
 java.lang.String destroyMethod
          The optional name of a method to call on the bean instance upon closing the application context, for example a close() method on a JDBC DataSource implementation, or a Hibernate SessionFactory object.
 java.lang.String initMethod
          The optional name of a method to call on the bean instance during initialization.
 java.lang.String[] name
          The name of this bean, or if plural, aliases for this bean.
 

name

public abstract java.lang.String[] name
The name of this bean, or if plural, aliases for this bean. If left unspecified the name of the bean is the name of the annotated method. If specified, the method name is ignored.

Default:
{}

autowire

public abstract Autowire autowire
Are dependencies to be injected via autowiring?

Default:
org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowire.NO

initMethod

public abstract java.lang.String initMethod
The optional name of a method to call on the bean instance during initialization. Not commonly used, given that the method may be called programmatically directly within the body of a Bean-annotated method. Default value is "", indicating that no init method should be called.

Default:
""

destroyMethod

public abstract java.lang.String destroyMethod
The optional name of a method to call on the bean instance upon closing the application context, for example a close() method on a JDBC DataSource implementation, or a Hibernate SessionFactory object. The method must have no arguments but may throw any exception.

As a convenience to the user, the container will attempt to infer a destroy method against an object returned from the @Bean method. For example, given a @Bean method returning an Apache Commons DBCP BasicDataSource, the container will notice the close() method available on that object and automatically register it as the destroyMethod. This 'destroy method inference' is currently limited to detecting only public, no-arg methods named 'close'. The method may be declared at any level of the inheritance hierarchy and will be detected regardless of the return type of the @Bean method (i.e., detection occurs reflectively against the bean instance itself at creation time).

To disable destroy method inference for a particular @Bean, specify an empty string as the value, e.g. @Bean(destroyMethod="").

Note: Only invoked on beans whose lifecycle is under the full control of the factory, which is always the case for singletons but not guaranteed for any other scope.

See Also:
ConfigurableApplicationContext.close()
Default:
"(inferred)"

Spring Framework