Configuring and Running a Job

In the domain section , the overall architecture design was discussed, using the following diagram as a guide:

Figure 2.1: Batch Stereotypes
Figure 1. Batch Stereotypes

While the Job object may seem like a simple container for steps, you must be aware of many configuration options. Furthermore, you must consider many options about how a Job can be run and how its metadata can be stored during that run. This chapter explains the various configuration options and runtime concerns of a Job.

Configuring a Job


One key issue when executing a batch job concerns the behavior of a Job when it is restarted. The launching of a Job is considered to be a “restart” if a JobExecution already exists for the particular JobInstance. Ideally, all jobs should be able to start up where they left off, but there are scenarios where this is not possible. In this scenario, it is entirely up to the developer to ensure that a new JobInstance is created. However, Spring Batch does provide some help. If a Job should never be restarted but should always be run as part of a new JobInstance, you can set the restartable property to false.

The following example shows how to set the restartable field to false in XML:

Example 1. XML Configuration
<job id="footballJob" restartable="false">

The following example shows how to set the restartable field to false in Java:

Example 2. Java Configuration
public Job footballJob(JobRepository jobRepository) {
    return new JobBuilder("footballJob", jobRepository)

To phrase it another way, setting restartable to false means “this Job does not support being started again”. Restarting a Job that is not restartable causes a JobRestartException to be thrown. The following Junit code causes the exception to be thrown:

Job job = new SimpleJob();

JobParameters jobParameters = new JobParameters();

JobExecution firstExecution = jobRepository.createJobExecution(job, jobParameters);

try {
    jobRepository.createJobExecution(job, jobParameters);
catch (JobRestartException e) {
    // expected

The first attempt to create a JobExecution for a non-restartable job causes no issues. However, the second attempt throws a JobRestartException.

Intercepting Job Execution

During the course of the execution of a Job, it may be useful to be notified of various events in its lifecycle so that custom code can be run. SimpleJob allows for this by calling a JobListener at the appropriate time:

public interface JobExecutionListener {

    void beforeJob(JobExecution jobExecution);

    void afterJob(JobExecution jobExecution);

You can add JobListeners to a SimpleJob by setting listeners on the job.

The following example shows how to add a listener element to an XML job definition:

Example 3. XML Configuration
<job id="footballJob">
    <step id="playerload"          parent="s1" next="gameLoad"/>
    <step id="gameLoad"            parent="s2" next="playerSummarization"/>
    <step id="playerSummarization" parent="s3"/>
        <listener ref="sampleListener"/>

The following example shows how to add a listener method to a Java job definition:

Example 4. Java Configuration
public Job footballJob(JobRepository jobRepository) {
    return new JobBuilder("footballJob", jobRepository)

Note that the afterJob method is called regardless of the success or failure of the Job. If you need to determine success or failure, you can get that information from the JobExecution:

public void afterJob(JobExecution jobExecution){
    if (jobExecution.getStatus() == BatchStatus.COMPLETED ) {
        //job success
    else if (jobExecution.getStatus() == BatchStatus.FAILED) {
        //job failure

The annotations corresponding to this interface are:

  • @BeforeJob

  • @AfterJob

Inheriting from a Parent Job

If a group of Jobs share similar but not identical configurations, it may help to define a “parent” Job from which the concrete Job instances can inherit properties. Similar to class inheritance in Java, a “child” Job combines its elements and attributes with the parent’s.

In the following example, baseJob is an abstract Job definition that defines only a list of listeners. The Job (job1) is a concrete definition that inherits the list of listeners from baseJob and merges it with its own list of listeners to produce a Job with two listeners and one Step (step1).

<job id="baseJob" abstract="true">
        <listener ref="listenerOne"/>

<job id="job1" parent="baseJob">
    <step id="step1" parent="standaloneStep"/>

    <listeners merge="true">
        <listener ref="listenerTwo"/>

See the section on Inheriting from a Parent Step for more detailed information.


A job declared in the XML namespace or using any subclass of AbstractJob can optionally declare a validator for the job parameters at runtime. This is useful when, for instance, you need to assert that a job is started with all its mandatory parameters. There is a DefaultJobParametersValidator that you can use to constrain combinations of simple mandatory and optional parameters. For more complex constraints, you can implement the interface yourself.

Java Configuration

Spring 3 brought the ability to configure applications with Java instead of XML. As of Spring Batch 2.2.0, you can configure batch jobs by using the same Java configuration. There are three components for the Java-based configuration: the @EnableBatchProcessing annotation and two builders.

The @EnableBatchProcessing annotation works similarly to the other @Enable* annotations in the Spring family. In this case, @EnableBatchProcessing provides a base configuration for building batch jobs. Within this base configuration, an instance of StepScope and JobScope are created, in addition to a number of beans being made available to be autowired:

  • JobRepository: a bean named jobRepository

  • JobLauncher: a bean named jobLauncher

  • JobRegistry: a bean named jobRegistry

  • JobExplorer: a bean named jobExplorer

  • JobOperator: a bean named jobOperator

The default implementation provides the beans mentioned in the preceding list and requires a DataSource and a PlatformTransactionManager to be provided as beans within the context. The data source and transaction manager are used by the JobRepository and JobExplorer instances. By default, the data source named dataSource and the transaction manager named transactionManager will be used. You can customize any of these beans by using the attributes of the @EnableBatchProcessing annotation. The following example shows how to provide a custom data source and transaction manager:

@EnableBatchProcessing(dataSourceRef = "batchDataSource", transactionManagerRef = "batchTransactionManager")
public class MyJobConfiguration {

	public DataSource batchDataSource() {
		return new EmbeddedDatabaseBuilder().setType(EmbeddedDatabaseType.HSQL)

	public JdbcTransactionManager batchTransactionManager(DataSource dataSource) {
		return new JdbcTransactionManager(dataSource);

	public Job job(JobRepository jobRepository) {
		return new JobBuilder("myJob", jobRepository)
				//define job flow as needed


Only one configuration class needs to have the @EnableBatchProcessing annotation. Once you have a class annotated with it, you have all of the configuration described earlier.

Starting from v5.0, an alternative, programmatic way of configuring base infrastrucutre beans is provided through the DefaultBatchConfiguration class. This class provides the same beans provided by @EnableBatchProcessing and can be used as a base class to configure batch jobs. The following snippet is a typical example of how to use it:

class MyJobConfiguration extends DefaultBatchConfiguration {

	public Job job(JobRepository jobRepository) {
		return new JobBuilder("job", jobRepository)
				// define job flow as needed


The data source and transaction manager will be resolved from the application context and set on the job repository and job explorer. You can customize the configuration of any infrastructure bean by overriding the required setter. The following example shows how to customize the character encoding for instance:

class MyJobConfiguration extends DefaultBatchConfiguration {

	public Job job(JobRepository jobRepository) {
		return new JobBuilder("job", jobRepository)
				// define job flow as needed

	protected Charset getCharset() {
		return StandardCharsets.ISO_8859_1;

@EnableBatchProcessing should not be used with DefaultBatchConfiguration. You should either use the declarative way of configuring Spring Batch through @EnableBatchProcessing, or use the programmatic way of extending DefaultBatchConfiguration, but not both ways at the same time.

Configuring a JobRepository

When using @EnableBatchProcessing, a JobRepository is provided for you. This section describes how to configure your own.

As described earlier, the JobRepository is used for basic CRUD operations of the various persisted domain objects within Spring Batch, such as JobExecution and StepExecution. It is required by many of the major framework features, such as the JobLauncher, Job, and Step.

The batch namespace abstracts away many of the implementation details of the JobRepository implementations and their collaborators. However, there are still a few configuration options available, as the following example shows:

Example 5. XML Configuration
<job-repository id="jobRepository"

Other than the id, none of the configuration options listed earlier are required. If they are not set, the defaults shown earlier are used. The max-varchar-length defaults to 2500, which is the length of the long VARCHAR columns in the sample schema scripts.

Other than the dataSource and the transactionManager, none of the configuration options listed earlier are required. If they are not set, the defaults shown earlier are used. The max varchar length defaults to 2500, which is the length of the long VARCHAR columns in the sample schema scripts

Transaction Configuration for the JobRepository

If the namespace or the provided FactoryBean is used, transactional advice is automatically created around the repository. This is to ensure that the batch metadata, including state that is necessary for restarts after a failure, is persisted correctly. The behavior of the framework is not well defined if the repository methods are not transactional. The isolation level in the create* method attributes is specified separately to ensure that, when jobs are launched, if two processes try to launch the same job at the same time, only one succeeds. The default isolation level for that method is SERIALIZABLE, which is quite aggressive. READ_COMMITTED usually works equally well. READ_UNCOMMITTED is fine if two processes are not likely to collide in this way. However, since a call to the create* method is quite short, it is unlikely that SERIALIZED causes problems, as long as the database platform supports it. However, you can override this setting.

The following example shows how to override the isolation level in XML:

Example 6. XML Configuration
<job-repository id="jobRepository"
                isolation-level-for-create="REPEATABLE_READ" />

The following example shows how to override the isolation level in Java:

Example 7. Java Configuration
@EnableBatchProcessing(isolationLevelForCreate = "ISOLATION_REPEATABLE_READ")
public class MyJobConfiguration {

   // job definition


If the namespace is not used, you must also configure the transactional behavior of the repository by using AOP.

The following example shows how to configure the transactional behavior of the repository in XML:

Example 8. XML Configuration
           pointcut="execution(* org.springframework.batch.core..*Repository+.*(..))"/>
    <advice-ref="txAdvice" />

<tx:advice id="txAdvice" transaction-manager="transactionManager">
        <tx:method name="*" />

You can use the preceding fragment nearly as is, with almost no changes. Remember also to include the appropriate namespace declarations and to make sure spring-tx and spring-aop (or the whole of Spring) are on the classpath.

The following example shows how to configure the transactional behavior of the repository in Java:

Example 9. Java Configuration
public TransactionProxyFactoryBean baseProxy() {
	TransactionProxyFactoryBean transactionProxyFactoryBean = new TransactionProxyFactoryBean();
	Properties transactionAttributes = new Properties();
	transactionAttributes.setProperty("*", "PROPAGATION_REQUIRED");
	return transactionProxyFactoryBean;

Changing the Table Prefix

Another modifiable property of the JobRepository is the table prefix of the meta-data tables. By default, they are all prefaced with BATCH_. BATCH_JOB_EXECUTION and BATCH_STEP_EXECUTION are two examples. However, there are potential reasons to modify this prefix. If the schema names need to be prepended to the table names or if more than one set of metadata tables is needed within the same schema, the table prefix needs to be changed.

The following example shows how to change the table prefix in XML:

Example 10. XML Configuration
<job-repository id="jobRepository"
                table-prefix="SYSTEM.TEST_" />

The following example shows how to change the table prefix in Java:

Example 11. Java Configuration
@EnableBatchProcessing(tablePrefix = "SYSTEM.TEST_")
public class MyJobConfiguration {

   // job definition


Given the preceding changes, every query to the metadata tables is prefixed with SYSTEM.TEST_. BATCH_JOB_EXECUTION is referred to as SYSTEM.TEST_JOB_EXECUTION.

Only the table prefix is configurable. The table and column names are not.

Non-standard Database Types in a Repository

If you use a database platform that is not in the list of supported platforms, you may be able to use one of the supported types, if the SQL variant is close enough. To do this, you can use the raw JobRepositoryFactoryBean instead of the namespace shortcut and use it to set the database type to the closest match.

The following example shows how to use JobRepositoryFactoryBean to set the database type to the closest match in XML:

Example 12. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobRepository" class="org...JobRepositoryFactoryBean">
    <property name="databaseType" value="db2"/>
    <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource"/>

The following example shows how to use JobRepositoryFactoryBean to set the database type to the closest match in Java:

Example 13. Java Configuration
public JobRepository jobRepository() throws Exception {
    JobRepositoryFactoryBean factory = new JobRepositoryFactoryBean();
    return factory.getObject();

If the database type is not specified, the JobRepositoryFactoryBean tries to auto-detect the database type from the DataSource. The major differences between platforms are mainly accounted for by the strategy for incrementing primary keys, so it is often necessary to override the incrementerFactory as well (by using one of the standard implementations from the Spring Framework).

If even that does not work or if you are not using an RDBMS, the only option may be to implement the various Dao interfaces that the SimpleJobRepository depends on and wire one up manually in the normal Spring way.

Configuring a JobLauncher

When you use @EnableBatchProcessing, a JobRegistry is provided for you. This section describes how to configure your own.

The most basic implementation of the JobLauncher interface is the TaskExecutorJobLauncher. Its only required dependency is a JobRepository (needed to obtain an execution).

The following example shows a TaskExecutorJobLauncher in XML:

Example 14. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobLauncher"
    <property name="jobRepository" ref="jobRepository" />

The following example shows a TaskExecutorJobLauncher in Java:

Example 15. Java Configuration
public JobLauncher jobLauncher() throws Exception {
	TaskExecutorJobLauncher jobLauncher = new TaskExecutorJobLauncher();
	return jobLauncher;

Once a JobExecution is obtained, it is passed to the execute method of Job, ultimately returning the JobExecution to the caller, as the following image shows:

Job Launcher Sequence
Figure 2. Job Launcher Sequence

The sequence is straightforward and works well when launched from a scheduler. However, issues arise when trying to launch from an HTTP request. In this scenario, the launching needs to be done asynchronously so that the TaskExecutorJobLauncher returns immediately to its caller. This is because it is not good practice to keep an HTTP request open for the amount of time needed by long running processes (such as batch jobs). The following image shows an example sequence:

Async Job Launcher Sequence
Figure 3. Asynchronous Job Launcher Sequence

You can configure the TaskExecutorJobLauncher to allow for this scenario by configuring a TaskExecutor.

The following XML example configures a TaskExecutorJobLauncher to return immediately:

Example 16. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobLauncher"
    <property name="jobRepository" ref="jobRepository" />
    <property name="taskExecutor">
        <bean class="org.springframework.core.task.SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor" />

The following Java example configures a TaskExecutorJobLauncher to return immediately:

Example 17. Java Configuration
public JobLauncher jobLauncher() {
	TaskExecutorJobLauncher jobLauncher = new TaskExecutorJobLauncher();
	jobLauncher.setTaskExecutor(new SimpleAsyncTaskExecutor());
	return jobLauncher;

You can use any implementation of the spring TaskExecutor interface to control how jobs are asynchronously executed.

Running a Job

At a minimum, launching a batch job requires two things: the Job to be launched and a JobLauncher. Both can be contained within the same context or different contexts. For example, if you launch jobs from the command line, a new JVM is instantiated for each Job. Thus, every job has its own JobLauncher. However, if you run from within a web container that is within the scope of an HttpRequest, there is usually one JobLauncher (configured for asynchronous job launching) that multiple requests invoke to launch their jobs.

Running Jobs from the Command Line

If you want to run your jobs from an enterprise scheduler, the command line is the primary interface. This is because most schedulers (with the exception of Quartz, unless using NativeJob) work directly with operating system processes, primarily kicked off with shell scripts. There are many ways to launch a Java process besides a shell script, such as Perl, Ruby, or even build tools, such as Ant or Maven. However, because most people are familiar with shell scripts, this example focuses on them.

The CommandLineJobRunner

Because the script launching the job must kick off a Java Virtual Machine, there needs to be a class with a main method to act as the primary entry point. Spring Batch provides an implementation that serves this purpose: CommandLineJobRunner. Note that this is just one way to bootstrap your application. There are many ways to launch a Java process, and this class should in no way be viewed as definitive. The CommandLineJobRunner performs four tasks:

  • Load the appropriate ApplicationContext.

  • Parse command line arguments into JobParameters.

  • Locate the appropriate job based on arguments.

  • Use the JobLauncher provided in the application context to launch the job.

All of these tasks are accomplished with only the arguments passed in. The following table describes the required arguments:

Table 1. CommandLineJobRunner arguments


The location of the XML file that is used to create an ApplicationContext. This file should contain everything needed to run the complete Job.


The name of the job to be run.

These arguments must be passed in, with the path first and the name second. All arguments after these are considered to be job parameters, are turned into a JobParameters object, and must be in the format of name=value.

The following example shows a date passed as a job parameter to a job defined in XML:

<bash$ java CommandLineJobRunner endOfDayJob.xml endOfDay,java.time.LocalDate

The following example shows a date passed as a job parameter to a job defined in Java:

<bash$ java CommandLineJobRunner io.spring.EndOfDayJobConfiguration endOfDay,java.time.LocalDate

By default, the CommandLineJobRunner uses a DefaultJobParametersConverter that implicitly converts key/value pairs to identifying job parameters. However, you can explicitly specify which job parameters are identifying and which are not by suffixing them with true or false, respectively.

In the following example, is an identifying job parameter, while is not:

<bash$ java CommandLineJobRunner endOfDayJob.xml endOfDay \
                       ,java.time.LocalDate,true \
<bash$ java CommandLineJobRunner io.spring.EndOfDayJobConfiguration endOfDay \
                       ,java.time.LocalDate,true \

You can override this behavior by using a custom JobParametersConverter.

The preceding example is overly simplistic, since there are many more requirements to a run a batch job in Spring Batch in general, but it serves to show the two main requirements of the CommandLineJobRunner: Job and JobLauncher.

Exit Codes

When launching a batch job from the command-line, an enterprise scheduler is often used. Most schedulers are fairly dumb and work only at the process level. This means that they only know about some operating system process (such as a shell script that they invoke). In this scenario, the only way to communicate back to the scheduler about the success or failure of a job is through return codes. A return code is a number that is returned to a scheduler by the process to indicate the result of the run. In the simplest case, 0 is success and 1 is failure. However, there may be more complex scenarios, such as “If job A returns 4, kick off job B, and, if it returns 5, kick off job C.” This type of behavior is configured at the scheduler level, but it is important that a processing framework such as Spring Batch provide a way to return a numeric representation of the exit code for a particular batch job. In Spring Batch, this is encapsulated within an ExitStatus, which is covered in more detail in Chapter 5. For the purposes of discussing exit codes, the only important thing to know is that an ExitStatus has an exit code property that is set by the framework (or the developer) and is returned as part of the JobExecution returned from the JobLauncher. The CommandLineJobRunner converts this string value to a number by using the ExitCodeMapper interface:

public interface ExitCodeMapper {

    public int intValue(String exitCode);


The essential contract of an ExitCodeMapper is that, given a string exit code, a number representation will be returned. The default implementation used by the job runner is the SimpleJvmExitCodeMapper that returns 0 for completion, 1 for generic errors, and 2 for any job runner errors such as not being able to find a Job in the provided context. If anything more complex than the three values above is needed, a custom implementation of the ExitCodeMapper interface must be supplied. Because the CommandLineJobRunner is the class that creates an ApplicationContext and, thus, cannot be 'wired together', any values that need to be overwritten must be autowired. This means that if an implementation of ExitCodeMapper is found within the BeanFactory, it is injected into the runner after the context is created. All that needs to be done to provide your own ExitCodeMapper is to declare the implementation as a root level bean and ensure that it is part of the ApplicationContext that is loaded by the runner.

Running Jobs from within a Web Container

Historically, offline processing (such as batch jobs) has been launched from the command-line, as described earlier. However, there are many cases where launching from an HttpRequest is a better option. Many such use cases include reporting, ad-hoc job running, and web application support. Because a batch job (by definition) is long running, the most important concern is to launch the job asynchronously:

Async Job Launcher Sequence from web container
Figure 4. Asynchronous Job Launcher Sequence From Web Container

The controller in this case is a Spring MVC controller. See the Spring Framework Reference Guide for more about Spring MVC. The controller launches a Job by using a JobLauncher that has been configured to launch asynchronously, which immediately returns a JobExecution. The Job is likely still running. However, this nonblocking behavior lets the controller return immediately, which is required when handling an HttpRequest. The following listing shows an example:

public class JobLauncherController {

    JobLauncher jobLauncher;

    Job job;

    public void handle() throws Exception{, new JobParameters());

Advanced Metadata Usage

So far, both the JobLauncher and JobRepository interfaces have been discussed. Together, they represent the simple launching of a job and basic CRUD operations of batch domain objects:

Job Repository
Figure 5. Job Repository

A JobLauncher uses the JobRepository to create new JobExecution objects and run them. Job and Step implementations later use the same JobRepository for basic updates of the same executions during the running of a Job. The basic operations suffice for simple scenarios. However, in a large batch environment with hundreds of batch jobs and complex scheduling requirements, more advanced access to the metadata is required:

Job Repository Advanced
Figure 6. Advanced Job Repository Access

The JobExplorer and JobOperator interfaces, which are discussed in the coming sections, add additional functionality for querying and controlling the metadata.

Querying the Repository

The most basic need before any advanced features is the ability to query the repository for existing executions. This functionality is provided by the JobExplorer interface:

public interface JobExplorer {

    List<JobInstance> getJobInstances(String jobName, int start, int count);

    JobExecution getJobExecution(Long executionId);

    StepExecution getStepExecution(Long jobExecutionId, Long stepExecutionId);

    JobInstance getJobInstance(Long instanceId);

    List<JobExecution> getJobExecutions(JobInstance jobInstance);

    Set<JobExecution> findRunningJobExecutions(String jobName);

As is evident from its method signatures, JobExplorer is a read-only version of the JobRepository, and, like the JobRepository, it can be easily configured by using a factory bean.

The following example shows how to configure a JobExplorer in XML:

Example 18. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobExplorer" class="org.spr...JobExplorerFactoryBean"
      p:dataSource-ref="dataSource" />

The following example shows how to configure a JobExplorer in Java:

Example 19. Java Configuration
// This would reside in your DefaultBatchConfiguration extension
public JobExplorer jobExplorer() throws Exception {
	JobExplorerFactoryBean factoryBean = new JobExplorerFactoryBean();
	return factoryBean.getObject();

Earlier in this chapter, we noted that you can modify the table prefix of the JobRepository to allow for different versions or schemas. Because the JobExplorer works with the same tables, it also needs the ability to set a prefix.

The following example shows how to set the table prefix for a JobExplorer in XML:

Example 20. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobExplorer" class="org.spr...JobExplorerFactoryBean"

The following example shows how to set the table prefix for a JobExplorer in Java:

Example 21. Java Configuration
// This would reside in your DefaultBatchConfiguration extension
public JobExplorer jobExplorer() throws Exception {
	JobExplorerFactoryBean factoryBean = new JobExplorerFactoryBean();
	return factoryBean.getObject();


A JobRegistry (and its parent interface, JobLocator) is not mandatory, but it can be useful if you want to keep track of which jobs are available in the context. It is also useful for collecting jobs centrally in an application context when they have been created elsewhere (for example, in child contexts). You can also use custom JobRegistry implementations to manipulate the names and other properties of the jobs that are registered. There is only one implementation provided by the framework and this is based on a simple map from job name to job instance.

The following example shows how to include a JobRegistry for a job defined in XML:

<bean id="jobRegistry" class="" />

When using @EnableBatchProcessing, a JobRegistry is provided for you. The following example shows how to configure your own JobRegistry:

// This is already provided via the @EnableBatchProcessing but can be customized via
// overriding the bean in the DefaultBatchConfiguration
public JobRegistry jobRegistry() throws Exception {
	return new MapJobRegistry();

You can populate a JobRegistry in either of two ways: by using a bean post processor or by using a registrar lifecycle component. The coming sections describe these two mechanisms.


This is a bean post-processor that can register all jobs as they are created.

The following example shows how to include the JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor for a job defined in XML:

Example 22. XML Configuration
<bean id="jobRegistryBeanPostProcessor" class="org.spr...JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor">
    <property name="jobRegistry" ref="jobRegistry"/>

The following example shows how to include the JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor for a job defined in Java:

Example 23. Java Configuration
public JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor jobRegistryBeanPostProcessor(JobRegistry jobRegistry) {
    JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor postProcessor = new JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor();
    return postProcessor;

Although it is not strictly necessary, the post-processor in the example has been given an id so that it can be included in child contexts (for example, as a parent bean definition) and cause all jobs created there to also be registered automatically.


This is a lifecycle component that creates child contexts and registers jobs from those contexts as they are created. One advantage of doing this is that, while the job names in the child contexts still have to be globally unique in the registry, their dependencies can have “natural” names. So, for example, you can create a set of XML configuration files that each have only one Job but that all have different definitions of an ItemReader with the same bean name, such as reader. If all those files were imported into the same context, the reader definitions would clash and override one another, but, with the automatic registrar, this is avoided. This makes it easier to integrate jobs that have been contributed from separate modules of an application.

The following example shows how to include the AutomaticJobRegistrar for a job defined in XML:

Example 24. XML Configuration
<bean class="org.spr...AutomaticJobRegistrar">
   <property name="applicationContextFactories">
      <bean class="org.spr...ClasspathXmlApplicationContextsFactoryBean">
         <property name="resources" value="classpath*:/config/job*.xml" />
   <property name="jobLoader">
      <bean class="org.spr...DefaultJobLoader">
         <property name="jobRegistry" ref="jobRegistry" />

The following example shows how to include the AutomaticJobRegistrar for a job defined in Java:

Example 25. Java Configuration
public AutomaticJobRegistrar registrar() {

    AutomaticJobRegistrar registrar = new AutomaticJobRegistrar();
    return registrar;


The registrar has two mandatory properties: an array of ApplicationContextFactory (created from a convenient factory bean in the preceding example) and a JobLoader. The JobLoader is responsible for managing the lifecycle of the child contexts and registering jobs in the JobRegistry.

The ApplicationContextFactory is responsible for creating the child context. The most common usage is (as in the preceding example) to use a ClassPathXmlApplicationContextFactory. One of the features of this factory is that, by default, it copies some of the configuration down from the parent context to the child. So, for instance, you need not redefine the PropertyPlaceholderConfigurer or AOP configuration in the child, provided it should be the same as the parent.

You can use AutomaticJobRegistrar in conjunction with a JobRegistryBeanPostProcessor (as long as you also use DefaultJobLoader). For instance, this might be desirable if there are jobs defined in the main parent context as well as in the child locations.


As previously discussed, the JobRepository provides CRUD operations on the meta-data, and the JobExplorer provides read-only operations on the metadata. However, those operations are most useful when used together to perform common monitoring tasks such as stopping, restarting, or summarizing a Job, as is commonly done by batch operators. Spring Batch provides these types of operations in the JobOperator interface:

public interface JobOperator {

    List<Long> getExecutions(long instanceId) throws NoSuchJobInstanceException;

    List<Long> getJobInstances(String jobName, int start, int count)
          throws NoSuchJobException;

    Set<Long> getRunningExecutions(String jobName) throws NoSuchJobException;

    String getParameters(long executionId) throws NoSuchJobExecutionException;

    Long start(String jobName, String parameters)
          throws NoSuchJobException, JobInstanceAlreadyExistsException;

    Long restart(long executionId)
          throws JobInstanceAlreadyCompleteException, NoSuchJobExecutionException,
                  NoSuchJobException, JobRestartException;

    Long startNextInstance(String jobName)
          throws NoSuchJobException, JobParametersNotFoundException, JobRestartException,
                 JobExecutionAlreadyRunningException, JobInstanceAlreadyCompleteException;

    boolean stop(long executionId)
          throws NoSuchJobExecutionException, JobExecutionNotRunningException;

    String getSummary(long executionId) throws NoSuchJobExecutionException;

    Map<Long, String> getStepExecutionSummaries(long executionId)
          throws NoSuchJobExecutionException;

    Set<String> getJobNames();


The preceding operations represent methods from many different interfaces, such as JobLauncher, JobRepository, JobExplorer, and JobRegistry. For this reason, the provided implementation of JobOperator (SimpleJobOperator) has many dependencies.

The following example shows a typical bean definition for SimpleJobOperator in XML:

<bean id="jobOperator" class="org.spr...SimpleJobOperator">
    <property name="jobExplorer">
        <bean class="org.spr...JobExplorerFactoryBean">
            <property name="dataSource" ref="dataSource" />
    <property name="jobRepository" ref="jobRepository" />
    <property name="jobRegistry" ref="jobRegistry" />
    <property name="jobLauncher" ref="jobLauncher" />

The following example shows a typical bean definition for SimpleJobOperator in Java:

  * All injected dependencies for this bean are provided by the @EnableBatchProcessing
  * infrastructure out of the box.
 public SimpleJobOperator jobOperator(JobExplorer jobExplorer,
                                JobRepository jobRepository,
                                JobRegistry jobRegistry,
                                JobLauncher jobLauncher) {

	SimpleJobOperator jobOperator = new SimpleJobOperator();

	return jobOperator;

As of version 5.0, the @EnableBatchProcessing annotation automatically registers a job operator bean in the application context.

If you set the table prefix on the job repository, do not forget to set it on the job explorer as well.


Most of the methods on JobOperator are self-explanatory, and you can find more detailed explanations in the Javadoc of the interface. However, the startNextInstance method is worth noting. This method always starts a new instance of a Job. This can be extremely useful if there are serious issues in a JobExecution and the Job needs to be started over again from the beginning. Unlike JobLauncher (which requires a new JobParameters object that triggers a new JobInstance), if the parameters are different from any previous set of parameters, the startNextInstance method uses the JobParametersIncrementer tied to the Job to force the Job to a new instance:

public interface JobParametersIncrementer {

    JobParameters getNext(JobParameters parameters);


The contract of JobParametersIncrementer is that, given a JobParameters object, it returns the “next” JobParameters object by incrementing any necessary values it may contain. This strategy is useful because the framework has no way of knowing what changes to the JobParameters make it the “next” instance. For example, if the only value in JobParameters is a date and the next instance should be created, should that value be incremented by one day or one week (if the job is weekly, for instance)? The same can be said for any numerical values that help to identify the Job, as the following example shows:

public class SampleIncrementer implements JobParametersIncrementer {

    public JobParameters getNext(JobParameters parameters) {
        if (parameters==null || parameters.isEmpty()) {
            return new JobParametersBuilder().addLong("", 1L).toJobParameters();
        long id = parameters.getLong("",1L) + 1;
        return new JobParametersBuilder().addLong("", id).toJobParameters();

In this example, the value with a key of is used to discriminate between JobInstances. If the JobParameters passed in is null, it can be assumed that the Job has never been run before and, thus, its initial state can be returned. However, if not, the old value is obtained, incremented by one, and returned.

Stopping a Job

One of the most common use cases of JobOperator is gracefully stopping a Job:

Set<Long> executions = jobOperator.getRunningExecutions("sampleJob");

The shutdown is not immediate, since there is no way to force immediate shutdown, especially if the execution is currently in developer code that the framework has no control over, such as a business service. However, as soon as control is returned back to the framework, it sets the status of the current StepExecution to BatchStatus.STOPPED, saves it, and does the same for the JobExecution before finishing.

Aborting a Job

A job execution that is FAILED can be restarted (if the Job is restartable). A job execution whose status is ABANDONED cannot be restarted by the framework. The ABANDONED status is also used in step executions to mark them as skippable in a restarted job execution. If a job is running and encounters a step that has been marked ABANDONED in the previous failed job execution, it moves on to the next step (as determined by the job flow definition and the step execution exit status).

If the process died (kill -9 or server failure), the job is, of course, not running, but the JobRepository has no way of knowing because no one told it before the process died. You have to tell it manually that you know that the execution either failed or should be considered aborted (change its status to FAILED or ABANDONED). This is a business decision, and there is no way to automate it. Change the status to FAILED only if it is restartable and you know that the restart data is valid.