25. Profiles

Spring Profiles provide a way to segregate parts of your application configuration and make it be available only in certain environments. Any @Component or @Configuration can be marked with @Profile to limit when it is loaded, as shown in the following example:

public class ProductionConfiguration {

	// ...


You can use a spring.profiles.active Environment property to specify which profiles are active. You can specify the property in any of the ways described earlier in this chapter. For example, you could include it in your application.properties, as shown in the following example:


You could also specify it on the command line by using the following switch: --spring.profiles.active=dev,hsqldb.

25.1 Adding Active Profiles

The spring.profiles.active property follows the same ordering rules as other properties: The highest PropertySource wins. This means that you can specify active profiles in application.properties and then replace them by using the command line switch.

Sometimes, it is useful to have profile-specific properties that add to the active profiles rather than replace them. The spring.profiles.include property can be used to unconditionally add active profiles. The SpringApplication entry point also has a Java API for setting additional profiles (that is, on top of those activated by the spring.profiles.active property). See the setAdditionalProfiles() method in SpringApplication.

For example, when an application with the following properties is run by using the switch, --spring.profiles.active=prod, the proddb and prodmq profiles are also activated:

my.property: fromyamlfile
spring.profiles: prod
  - proddb
  - prodmq

Remember that the spring.profiles property can be defined in a YAML document to determine when this particular document is included in the configuration. See Section 74.7, “Change Configuration Depending on the Environment” for more details.

25.2 Programmatically Setting Profiles

You can programmatically set active profiles by calling SpringApplication.setAdditionalProfiles(…​) before your application runs. It is also possible to activate profiles by using Spring’s ConfigurableEnvironment interface.

25.3 Profile-specific Configuration Files

Profile-specific variants of both application.properties (or application.yml) and files referenced through @ConfigurationProperties are considered as files and loaded. See "Section 24.4, “Profile-specific Properties”" for details.