34. Messaging

The Spring Framework provides extensive support for integrating with messaging systems, from simplified use of the JMS API using JmsTemplate to a complete infrastructure to receive messages asynchronously. Spring AMQP provides a similar feature set for the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol. Spring Boot also provides auto-configuration options for RabbitTemplate and RabbitMQ. Spring WebSocket natively includes support for STOMP messaging, and Spring Boot has support for that through starters and a small amount of auto-configuration. Spring Boot also has support for Apache Kafka.

34.1 JMS

The javax.jms.ConnectionFactory interface provides a standard method of creating a javax.jms.Connection for interacting with a JMS broker. Although Spring needs a ConnectionFactory to work with JMS, you generally need not use it directly yourself and can instead rely on higher level messaging abstractions. (See the relevant section of the Spring Framework reference documentation for details.) Spring Boot also auto-configures the necessary infrastructure to send and receive messages.

34.1.1 ActiveMQ Support

When ActiveMQ is available on the classpath, Spring Boot can also configure a ConnectionFactory. If the broker is present, an embedded broker is automatically started and configured (provided no broker URL is specified through configuration).

[Note]Note

If you use spring-boot-starter-activemq, the necessary dependencies to connect or embed an ActiveMQ instance are provided, as is the Spring infrastructure to integrate with JMS.

ActiveMQ configuration is controlled by external configuration properties in spring.activemq.*. For example, you might declare the following section in application.properties:

spring.activemq.broker-url=tcp://192.168.1.210:9876
spring.activemq.user=admin
spring.activemq.password=secret

By default, a CachingConnectionFactory wraps the native ConnectionFactory with sensible settings that you can control by external configuration properties in spring.jms.*:

spring.jms.cache.session-cache-size=5

If you’d rather use native pooling, you can do so by adding a dependency to org.messaginghub:pooled-jms and configuring the JmsPoolConnectionFactory accordingly, as shown in the following example:

spring.activemq.pool.enabled=true
spring.activemq.pool.max-connections=50
[Tip]Tip

See ActiveMQProperties for more of the supported options. You can also register an arbitrary number of beans that implement ActiveMQConnectionFactoryCustomizer for more advanced customizations.

By default, ActiveMQ creates a destination if it does not yet exist so that destinations are resolved against their provided names.

34.1.2 Artemis Support

Spring Boot can auto-configure a ConnectionFactory when it detects that Artemis is available on the classpath. If the broker is present, an embedded broker is automatically started and configured (unless the mode property has been explicitly set). The supported modes are embedded (to make explicit that an embedded broker is required and that an error should occur if the broker is not available on the classpath) and native (to connect to a broker using the netty transport protocol). When the latter is configured, Spring Boot configures a ConnectionFactory that connects to a broker running on the local machine with the default settings.

[Note]Note

If you use spring-boot-starter-artemis, the necessary dependencies to connect to an existing Artemis instance are provided, as well as the Spring infrastructure to integrate with JMS. Adding org.apache.activemq:artemis-jms-server to your application lets you use embedded mode.

Artemis configuration is controlled by external configuration properties in spring.artemis.*. For example, you might declare the following section in application.properties:

spring.artemis.mode=native
spring.artemis.host=192.168.1.210
spring.artemis.port=9876
spring.artemis.user=admin
spring.artemis.password=secret

When embedding the broker, you can choose if you want to enable persistence and list the destinations that should be made available. These can be specified as a comma-separated list to create them with the default options, or you can define bean(s) of type org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.server.config.JMSQueueConfiguration or org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.server.config.TopicConfiguration, for advanced queue and topic configurations, respectively.

By default, a CachingConnectionFactory wraps the native ConnectionFactory with sensible settings that you can control by external configuration properties in spring.jms.*:

spring.jms.cache.session-cache-size=5

If you’d rather use native pooling, you can do so by adding a dependency to org.messaginghub:pooled-jms and configuring the JmsPoolConnectionFactory accordingly, as shown in the following example:

spring.artemis.pool.enabled=true
spring.artemis.pool.max-connections=50

See ArtemisProperties for more supported options.

No JNDI lookup is involved, and destinations are resolved against their names, using either the name attribute in the Artemis configuration or the names provided through configuration.

34.1.3 Using a JNDI ConnectionFactory

If you are running your application in an application server, Spring Boot tries to locate a JMS ConnectionFactory by using JNDI. By default, the java:/JmsXA and java:/XAConnectionFactory location are checked. You can use the spring.jms.jndi-name property if you need to specify an alternative location, as shown in the following example:

spring.jms.jndi-name=java:/MyConnectionFactory

34.1.4 Sending a Message

Spring’s JmsTemplate is auto-configured, and you can autowire it directly into your own beans, as shown in the following example:

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.jms.core.JmsTemplate;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class MyBean {

	private final JmsTemplate jmsTemplate;

	@Autowired
	public MyBean(JmsTemplate jmsTemplate) {
		this.jmsTemplate = jmsTemplate;
	}

	// ...

}
[Note]Note

JmsMessagingTemplate can be injected in a similar manner. If a DestinationResolver or a MessageConverter bean is defined, it is associated automatically to the auto-configured JmsTemplate.

34.1.5 Receiving a Message

When the JMS infrastructure is present, any bean can be annotated with @JmsListener to create a listener endpoint. If no JmsListenerContainerFactory has been defined, a default one is configured automatically. If a DestinationResolver or a MessageConverter beans is defined, it is associated automatically to the default factory.

By default, the default factory is transactional. If you run in an infrastructure where a JtaTransactionManager is present, it is associated to the listener container by default. If not, the sessionTransacted flag is enabled. In that latter scenario, you can associate your local data store transaction to the processing of an incoming message by adding @Transactional on your listener method (or a delegate thereof). This ensures that the incoming message is acknowledged, once the local transaction has completed. This also includes sending response messages that have been performed on the same JMS session.

The following component creates a listener endpoint on the someQueue destination:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	@JmsListener(destination = "someQueue")
	public void processMessage(String content) {
		// ...
	}

}
[Tip]Tip

See the Javadoc of @EnableJms for more details.

If you need to create more JmsListenerContainerFactory instances or if you want to override the default, Spring Boot provides a DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer that you can use to initialize a DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory with the same settings as the one that is auto-configured.

For instance, the following example exposes another factory that uses a specific MessageConverter:

@Configuration
static class JmsConfiguration {

	@Bean
	public DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory myFactory(
			DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer configurer) {
		DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory factory =
				new DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory();
		configurer.configure(factory, connectionFactory());
		factory.setMessageConverter(myMessageConverter());
		return factory;
	}

}

Then you can use the factory in any @JmsListener-annotated method as follows:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	@JmsListener(destination = "someQueue", containerFactory="myFactory")
	public void processMessage(String content) {
		// ...
	}

}

34.2 AMQP

The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is a platform-neutral, wire-level protocol for message-oriented middleware. The Spring AMQP project applies core Spring concepts to the development of AMQP-based messaging solutions. Spring Boot offers several conveniences for working with AMQP through RabbitMQ, including the spring-boot-starter-amqp “Starter”.

34.2.1 RabbitMQ support

RabbitMQ is a lightweight, reliable, scalable, and portable message broker based on the AMQP protocol. Spring uses RabbitMQ to communicate through the AMQP protocol.

RabbitMQ configuration is controlled by external configuration properties in spring.rabbitmq.*. For example, you might declare the following section in application.properties:

spring.rabbitmq.host=localhost
spring.rabbitmq.port=5672
spring.rabbitmq.username=admin
spring.rabbitmq.password=secret

Alternatively, you could configure the same connection using the addresses attributes:

spring.rabbitmq.addresses=amqp://admin:[email protected]

If a ConnectionNameStrategy bean exists in the context, it will be automatically used to name connections created by the auto-configured ConnectionFactory. See RabbitProperties for more of the supported options.

34.2.2 Sending a Message

Spring’s AmqpTemplate and AmqpAdmin are auto-configured, and you can autowire them directly into your own beans, as shown in the following example:

import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpAdmin;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class MyBean {

	private final AmqpAdmin amqpAdmin;
	private final AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;

	@Autowired
	public MyBean(AmqpAdmin amqpAdmin, AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate) {
		this.amqpAdmin = amqpAdmin;
		this.amqpTemplate = amqpTemplate;
	}

	// ...

}
[Note]Note

RabbitMessagingTemplate can be injected in a similar manner. If a MessageConverter bean is defined, it is associated automatically to the auto-configured AmqpTemplate.

If necessary, any org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue that is defined as a bean is automatically used to declare a corresponding queue on the RabbitMQ instance.

To retry operations, you can enable retries on the AmqpTemplate (for example, in the event that the broker connection is lost):

spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.enabled=true
spring.rabbitmq.template.retry.initial-interval=2s

Retries are disabled by default. You can also customize the RetryTemplate programmatically by declaring a RabbitRetryTemplateCustomizer bean.

34.2.3 Receiving a Message

When the Rabbit infrastructure is present, any bean can be annotated with @RabbitListener to create a listener endpoint. If no RabbitListenerContainerFactory has been defined, a default SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactory is automatically configured and you can switch to a direct container using the spring.rabbitmq.listener.type property. If a MessageConverter or a MessageRecoverer bean is defined, it is automatically associated with the default factory.

The following sample component creates a listener endpoint on the someQueue queue:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	@RabbitListener(queues = "someQueue")
	public void processMessage(String content) {
		// ...
	}

}
[Tip]Tip

See the Javadoc of @EnableRabbit for more details.

If you need to create more RabbitListenerContainerFactory instances or if you want to override the default, Spring Boot provides a SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer and a DirectRabbitListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer that you can use to initialize a SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactory and a DirectRabbitListenerContainerFactory with the same settings as the factories used by the auto-configuration.

[Tip]Tip

It does not matter which container type you chose. Those two beans are exposed by the auto-configuration.

For instance, the following configuration class exposes another factory that uses a specific MessageConverter:

@Configuration
static class RabbitConfiguration {

	@Bean
	public SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactory myFactory(
			SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer configurer) {
		SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactory factory =
				new SimpleRabbitListenerContainerFactory();
		configurer.configure(factory, connectionFactory);
		factory.setMessageConverter(myMessageConverter());
		return factory;
	}

}

Then you can use the factory in any @RabbitListener-annotated method, as follows:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	@RabbitListener(queues = "someQueue", containerFactory="myFactory")
	public void processMessage(String content) {
		// ...
	}

}

You can enable retries to handle situations where your listener throws an exception. By default, RejectAndDontRequeueRecoverer is used, but you can define a MessageRecoverer of your own. When retries are exhausted, the message is rejected and either dropped or routed to a dead-letter exchange if the broker is configured to do so. By default, retries are disabled. You can also customize the RetryTemplate programmatically by declaring a RabbitRetryTemplateCustomizer bean.

[Important]Important

By default, if retries are disabled and the listener throws an exception, the delivery is retried indefinitely. You can modify this behavior in two ways: Set the defaultRequeueRejected property to false so that zero re-deliveries are attempted or throw an AmqpRejectAndDontRequeueException to signal the message should be rejected. The latter is the mechanism used when retries are enabled and the maximum number of delivery attempts is reached.

34.3 Apache Kafka Support

Apache Kafka is supported by providing auto-configuration of the spring-kafka project.

Kafka configuration is controlled by external configuration properties in spring.kafka.*. For example, you might declare the following section in application.properties:

spring.kafka.bootstrap-servers=localhost:9092
spring.kafka.consumer.group-id=myGroup
[Tip]Tip

To create a topic on startup, add a bean of type NewTopic. If the topic already exists, the bean is ignored.

See KafkaProperties for more supported options.

34.3.1 Sending a Message

Spring’s KafkaTemplate is auto-configured, and you can autowire it directly in your own beans, as shown in the following example:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	private final KafkaTemplate kafkaTemplate;

	@Autowired
	public MyBean(KafkaTemplate kafkaTemplate) {
		this.kafkaTemplate = kafkaTemplate;
	}

	// ...

}
[Note]Note

If the property spring.kafka.producer.transaction-id-prefix is defined, a KafkaTransactionManager is automatically configured. Also, if a RecordMessageConverter bean is defined, it is automatically associated to the auto-configured KafkaTemplate.

34.3.2 Receiving a Message

When the Apache Kafka infrastructure is present, any bean can be annotated with @KafkaListener to create a listener endpoint. If no KafkaListenerContainerFactory has been defined, a default one is automatically configured with keys defined in spring.kafka.listener.*.

The following component creates a listener endpoint on the someTopic topic:

@Component
public class MyBean {

	@KafkaListener(topics = "someTopic")
	public void processMessage(String content) {
		// ...
	}

}

If a KafkaTransactionManager bean is defined, it is automatically associated to the container factory. Similarly, if a RecordMessageConverter, ErrorHandler or AfterRollbackProcessor bean is defined, it is automatically associated to the default factory.

[Tip]Tip

A custom ChainedKafkaTransactionManager must be marked @Primary as it usually references the auto-configured KafkaTransactionManager bean.

34.3.3 Kafka Streams

Spring for Apache Kafka provides a factory bean to create a StreamsBuilder object and manage the lifecycle of its streams. Spring Boot auto-configures the required KafkaStreamsConfiguration bean as long as kafka-streams is on the classpath and Kafka Streams is enabled via the @EnableKafkaStreams annotation.

Enabling Kafka Streams means that the application id and bootstrap servers must be set. The former can be configured using spring.kafka.streams.application-id, defaulting to spring.application.name if not set. The latter can be set globally or specifically overridden just for streams.

Several additional properties are available using dedicated properties; other arbitrary Kafka properties can be set using the spring.kafka.streams.properties namespace. See also Section 34.3.4, “Additional Kafka Properties” for more information.

To use the factory bean, simply wire StreamsBuilder into your @Bean as shown in the following example:

@Configuration
@EnableKafkaStreams
static class KafkaStreamsExampleConfiguration {

	@Bean
	public KStream<Integer, String> kStream(StreamsBuilder streamsBuilder) {
		KStream<Integer, String> stream = streamsBuilder.stream("ks1In");
		stream.map((k, v) -> new KeyValue<>(k, v.toUpperCase())).to("ks1Out",
				Produced.with(Serdes.Integer(), new JsonSerde<>()));
		return stream;
	}

}

By default, the streams managed by the StreamBuilder object it creates are started automatically. You can customize this behaviour using the spring.kafka.streams.auto-startup property.

34.3.4 Additional Kafka Properties

The properties supported by auto configuration are shown in Appendix A, Common application properties. Note that, for the most part, these properties (hyphenated or camelCase) map directly to the Apache Kafka dotted properties. Refer to the Apache Kafka documentation for details.

The first few of these properties apply to all components (producers, consumers, admins, and streams) but can be specified at the component level if you wish to use different values. Apache Kafka designates properties with an importance of HIGH, MEDIUM, or LOW. Spring Boot auto-configuration supports all HIGH importance properties, some selected MEDIUM and LOW properties, and any properties that do not have a default value.

Only a subset of the properties supported by Kafka are available directly through the KafkaProperties class. If you wish to configure the producer or consumer with additional properties that are not directly supported, use the following properties:

spring.kafka.properties.prop.one=first
spring.kafka.admin.properties.prop.two=second
spring.kafka.consumer.properties.prop.three=third
spring.kafka.producer.properties.prop.four=fourth
spring.kafka.streams.properties.prop.five=fifth

This sets the common prop.one Kafka property to first (applies to producers, consumers and admins), the prop.two admin property to second, the prop.three consumer property to third, the prop.four producer property to fourth and the prop.five streams property to fifth.

You can also configure the Spring Kafka JsonDeserializer as follows:

spring.kafka.consumer.value-deserializer=org.springframework.kafka.support.serializer.JsonDeserializer
spring.kafka.consumer.properties.spring.json.value.default.type=com.example.Invoice
spring.kafka.consumer.properties.spring.json.trusted.packages=com.example,org.acme

Similarly, you can disable the JsonSerializer default behavior of sending type information in headers:

spring.kafka.producer.value-serializer=org.springframework.kafka.support.serializer.JsonSerializer
spring.kafka.producer.properties.spring.json.add.type.headers=false
[Important]Important

Properties set in this way override any configuration item that Spring Boot explicitly supports.