spring-boot-loader modules allows Spring Boot to support executable jar and
war files. If you’re using the Maven or Gradle plugin, executable jars are
automatically generated and you generally won’t need to know the details of how
If you need to create executable jars from a different build system, or if you are just curious about the underlying technology, this section provides some background.
Java does not provide any standard way to load nested jar files (i.e. jar files that are themselves contained within a jar). This can be problematic if you are looking to distribute a self-contained application that you can just run from the command line without unpacking.
To solve this problem, many developers use “shaded” jars. A shaded jar simply packages all classes, from all jars, into a single 'uber jar'. The problem with shaded jars is that it becomes hard to see which libraries you are actually using in your application. It can also be problematic if the same filename is used (but with different content) in multiple jars. Spring Boot takes a different approach and allows you to actually nest jars directly.
Spring Boot Loader compatible jar files should be structured in the following way:
example.jar | +-META-INF | +-MANIFEST.MF +-org | +-springframework | +-boot | +-loader | +-<spring boot loader classes> +-BOOT-INF +-classes | +-mycompany | +-project | +-YourClasses.class +-lib +-dependency1.jar +-dependency2.jar
Application classes should be placed in a nested
Dependencies should be placed in a nested
Spring Boot Loader compatible war files should be structured in the following way:
example.war | +-META-INF | +-MANIFEST.MF +-org | +-springframework | +-boot | +-loader | +-<spring boot loader classes> +-WEB-INF +-classes | +-com | +-mycompany | +-project | +-YourClasses.class +-lib | +-dependency1.jar | +-dependency2.jar +-lib-provided +-servlet-api.jar +-dependency3.jar
Dependencies should be placed in a nested
WEB-INF/lib directory. Any dependencies
that are required when running embedded but are not required when deploying to
a traditional web container should be placed in
The core class used to support loading nested jars is
org.springframework.boot.loader.jar.JarFile. It allows you to load jar
content from a standard jar file, or from nested child jar data. When first loaded, the
location of each
JarEntry is mapped to a physical file offset of the outer jar:
myapp.jar +-------------------+-------------------------+ | /BOOT-INF/classes | /BOOT-INF/lib/mylib.jar | |+-----------------+||+-----------+----------+| || A.class ||| B.class | C.class || |+-----------------+||+-----------+----------+| +-------------------+-------------------------+ ^ ^ ^ 0063 3452 3980
The example above shows how
A.class can be found in
B.class from the nested jar can actually be found in
C.class is at position
Armed with this information, we can load specific nested entries by simply seeking to the appropriate part of the outer jar. We don’t need to unpack the archive and we don’t need to read all entry data into memory.
Spring Boot Loader strives to remain compatible with existing code and libraries.
org.springframework.boot.loader.jar.JarFile extends from
should work as a drop-in replacement. The
getURL() method will return a
java.net.JarURLConnection compatible connection and can be used with Java’s
org.springframework.boot.loader.Launcher class is a special bootstrap class that
is used as an executable jars main entry point. It is the actual
Main-Class in your jar
file and it’s used to setup an appropriate
URLClassLoader and ultimately call your
There are 3 launcher subclasses (
Their purpose is to load resources (
.class files etc.) from nested jar files or war
files in directories (as opposed to explicitly on the classpath). In the case of
WarLauncher the nested paths are fixed.
JarLauncher looks in
WarLauncher looks in
you just add extra jars in those locations if you want more. The
BOOT-INF/lib/ in your application archive by default, but you can add
additional locations by setting an environment variable
loader.properties (comma-separated list of directories, archives, or directories
You need to specify an appropriate
Launcher as the
Main-Class attribute of
META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. The actual class that you want to launch (i.e. the class that
you wrote that contains a
main method) should be specified in the
For example, here is a typical
MANIFEST.MF for an executable jar file:
Main-Class: org.springframework.boot.loader.JarLauncher Start-Class: com.mycompany.project.MyApplication
For a war file, it would be:
Main-Class: org.springframework.boot.loader.WarLauncher Start-Class: com.mycompany.project.MyApplication
You do not need to specify
PropertiesLauncher has a few special features that can be enabled with external
properties (System properties, environment variables, manifest entries or
Comma-separated Classpath, e.g.
Used to resolve relative paths in
Default arguments for the main method (space separated)
Name of main class to launch, e.g.
Name of properties file, e.g.
Path to properties file, e.g.
Boolean flag to indicate that all properties should be added to System properties
When specified as environment variables or manifest entries, the following names should be used:
|Key||Manifest entry||Environment variable|
Build plugins automatically move the
loader.propertiesare searched for in
loader.homethen in the root of the classpath, then in
classpath:/BOOT-INF/classes. The first location that exists is used.
loader.homeis only the directory location of an additional properties file (overriding the default) as long as
loader.config.locationis not specified.
loader.pathcan contain directories (scanned recursively for jar and zip files), archive paths, a directory within an archive that is scanned for jar files (for example,
dependencies.jar!/lib), or wildcard patterns (for the default JVM behavior). Archive paths can be relative to
loader.home, or anywhere in the file system with a
loader.path(if empty) defaults to
BOOT-INF/lib(meaning a local directory or a nested one if running from an archive). Because of this
PropertiesLauncherbehaves the same as
JarLauncherwhen no additional configuration is provided.
loader.pathcan not be used to configure the location of
loader.properties(the classpath used to search for the latter is the JVM classpath when
loader.properties, exploded archive manifest, archive manifest.
There are a number of restrictions that you need to consider when working with a Spring Boot Loader packaged application.
ZipEntry for a nested jar must be saved using the
ZipEntry.STORED method. This
is required so that we can seek directly to individual content within the nested jar.
The content of the nested jar file itself can still be compressed, as can any other
entries in the outer jar.
Launched applications should use
Thread.getContextClassLoader() when loading classes
(most libraries and frameworks will do this by default). Trying to load nested jar
ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader() will fail. Please be aware that
java.util.Logging always uses the system classloader, for this reason you should
consider a different logging implementation.