Spring Cloud Stream Core

1. Quick Start

You can try Spring Cloud Stream in less then 5 min even before you jump into any details by following this three-step guide.

We show you how to create a Spring Cloud Stream application that receives messages coming from the messaging middleware of your choice (more on this later) and logs received messages to the console. We call it LoggingConsumer. While not very practical, it provides a good introduction to some of the main concepts and abstractions, making it easier to digest the rest of this user guide.

The three steps are as follows:

1.1. Creating a Sample Application by Using Spring Initializr

To get started, visit the Spring Initializr. From there, you can generate our LoggingConsumer application. To do so:

  1. In the Dependencies section, start typing stream. When the “Cloud Stream” option should appears, select it.

  2. Start typing either 'kafka' or 'rabbit'.

  3. Select “Kafka” or “RabbitMQ”.

    Basically, you choose the messaging middleware to which your application binds. We recommend using the one you have already installed or feel more comfortable with installing and running. Also, as you can see from the Initilaizer screen, there are a few other options you can choose. For example, you can choose Gradle as your build tool instead of Maven (the default).

  4. In the Artifact field, type 'logging-consumer'.

    The value of the Artifact field becomes the application name. If you chose RabbitMQ for the middleware, your Spring Initializr should now be as follows:

    stream initializr
  5. Click the Generate Project button.

    Doing so downloads the zipped version of the generated project to your hard drive.

  6. Unzip the file into the folder you want to use as your project directory.

We encourage you to explore the many possibilities available in the Spring Initializr. It lets you create many different kinds of Spring applications.

1.2. Importing the Project into Your IDE

Now you can import the project into your IDE. Keep in mind that, depending on the IDE, you may need to follow a specific import procedure. For example, depending on how the project was generated (Maven or Gradle), you may need to follow specific import procedure (for example, in Eclipse or STS, you need to use File → Import → Maven → Existing Maven Project).

Once imported, the project must have no errors of any kind. Also, src/main/java should contain com.example.loggingconsumer.LoggingConsumerApplication.

Technically, at this point, you can run the application’s main class. It is already a valid Spring Boot application. However, it does not do anything, so we want to add some code.

1.3. Adding a Message Handler, Building, and Running

Modify the com.example.loggingconsumer.LoggingConsumerApplication class to look as follows:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class LoggingConsumerApplication {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(LoggingConsumerApplication.class, args);
	}

	@StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
	public void handle(Person person) {
		System.out.println("Received: " + person);
	}

	public static class Person {
		private String name;
		public String getName() {
			return name;
		}
		public void setName(String name) {
			this.name = name;
		}
		public String toString() {
			return this.name;
		}
	}
}

As you can see from the preceding listing:

  • We have enabled Sink binding (input-no-output) by using @EnableBinding(Sink.class). Doing so signals to the framework to initiate binding to the messaging middleware, where it automatically creates the destination (that is, queue, topic, and others) that are bound to the Sink.INPUT channel.

  • We have added a handler method to receive incoming messages of type Person. Doing so lets you see one of the core features of the framework: It tries to automatically convert incoming message payloads to type Person.

You now have a fully functional Spring Cloud Stream application that does listens for messages. From here, for simplicity, we assume you selected RabbitMQ in step one. Assuming you have RabbitMQ installed and running, you can start the application by running its main method in your IDE.

You should see following output:

	--- [ main] c.s.b.r.p.RabbitExchangeQueueProvisioner : declaring queue for inbound: input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg, bound to: input
	--- [ main] o.s.a.r.c.CachingConnectionFactory       : Attempting to connect to: [localhost:5672]
	--- [ main] o.s.a.r.c.CachingConnectionFactory       : Created new connection: rabbitConnectionFactory#2a3a299:0/[email protected] . .
	. . .
	--- [ main] o.s.i.a.i.AmqpInboundChannelAdapter      : started inbound.input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg
	. . .
	--- [ main] c.e.l.LoggingConsumerApplication         : Started LoggingConsumerApplication in 2.531 seconds (JVM running for 2.897)

Go to the RabbitMQ management console or any other RabbitMQ client and send a message to input.anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg. The anonymous.CbMIwdkJSBO1ZoPDOtHtCg part represents the group name and is generated, so it is bound to be different in your environment. For something more predictable, you can use an explicit group name by setting spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.group=hello (or whatever name you like).

The contents of the message should be a JSON representation of the Person class, as follows:

{"name":"Sam Spade"}

Then, in your console, you should see:

Received: Sam Spade

You can also build and package your application into a boot jar (by using ./mvnw clean install) and run the built JAR by using the java -jar command.

Now you have a working (albeit very basic) Spring Cloud Stream application.

2. What’s New in 2.0?

Spring Cloud Stream introduces a number of new features, enhancements, and changes. The following sections outline the most notable ones:

2.1. New Features and Components

  • Polling Consumers: Introduction of polled consumers, which lets the application control message processing rates. See “Using Polled Consumers” for more details. You can also read this blog post for more details.

  • Micrometer Support: Metrics has been switched to use Micrometer. MeterRegistry is also provided as a bean so that custom applications can autowire it to capture custom metrics. See “Metrics Emitter” for more details.

  • New Actuator Binding Controls: New actuator binding controls let you both visualize and control the Bindings lifecycle. For more details, see Binding visualization and control.

  • Configurable RetryTemplate: Aside from providing properties to configure RetryTemplate, we now let you provide your own template, effectively overriding the one provided by the framework. To use it, configure it as a @Bean in your application.

2.2. Notable Enhancements

This version includes the following notable enhancements:

2.2.1. Both Actuator and Web Dependencies Are Now Optional

This change slims down the footprint of the deployed application in the event neither actuator nor web dependencies required. It also lets you switch between the reactive and conventional web paradigms by manually adding one of the following dependencies.

The following listing shows how to add the conventional web framework:

<dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

The following listing shows how to add the reactive web framework:

<dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webflux</artifactId>
</dependency>

The following list shows how to add the actuator dependency:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
</dependency>

2.2.2. Content-type Negotiation Improvements

One of the core themes for verion 2.0 is improvements (in both consistency and performance) around content-type negotiation and message conversion. The following summary outlines the notable changes and improvements in this area. See the “Content Type Negotiation” section for more details. Also this blog post contains more detail.

  • All message conversion is now handled only by MessageConverter objects.

  • We introduced the @StreamMessageConverter annotation to provide custom MessageConverter objects.

  • We introduced the default Content Type as application/json, which needs to be taken into consideration when migrating 1.3 application or operating in the mixed mode (that is, 1.3 producer → 2.0 consumer).

  • Messages with textual payloads and a contentType of text/…​ or …​/json are no longer converted to Message<String> for cases where the argument type of the provided MessageHandler can not be determined (that is, public void handle(Message<?> message) or public void handle(Object payload)). Furthermore, a strong argument type may not be enough to properly convert messages, so the contentType header may be used as a supplement by some MessageConverters.

2.3. Notable Deprecations

As of version 2.0, the following items have been deprecated:

2.3.1. Java Serialization (Java Native and Kryo)

JavaSerializationMessageConverter and KryoMessageConverter remain for now. However, we plan to move them out of the core packages and support in the future. The main reason for this deprecation is to flag the issue that type-based, language-specific serialization could cause in distributed environments, where Producers and Consumers may depend on different JVM versions or have different versions of supporting libraries (that is, Kryo). We also wanted to draw the attention to the fact that Consumers and Producers may not even be Java-based, so polyglot style serialization (i.e., JSON) is better suited.

2.3.2. Deprecated Classes and Methods

The following is a quick summary of notable deprecations. See the corresponding {spring-cloud-stream-javadoc-current}[javadoc] for more details.

  • SharedChannelRegistry. Use SharedBindingTargetRegistry.

  • Bindings. Beans qualified by it are already uniquely identified by their type — for example, provided Source, Processor, or custom bindings:

public interface Sample {
	String OUTPUT = "sampleOutput";

	@Output(Sample.OUTPUT)
	MessageChannel output();
}
  • HeaderMode.raw. Use none, headers or embeddedHeaders

  • ProducerProperties.partitionKeyExtractorClass in favor of partitionKeyExtractorName and ProducerProperties.partitionSelectorClass in favor of partitionSelectorName. This change ensures that both components are Spring configured and managed and are referenced in a Spring-friendly way.

  • BinderAwareRouterBeanPostProcessor. While the component remains, it is no longer a BeanPostProcessor and will be renamed in the future.

  • BinderProperties.setEnvironment(Properties environment). Use BinderProperties.setEnvironment(Map<String, Object> environment).

This section goes into more detail about how you can work with Spring Cloud Stream. It covers topics such as creating and running stream applications.

3. Introducing Spring Cloud Stream

Spring Cloud Stream is a framework for building message-driven microservice applications. Spring Cloud Stream builds upon Spring Boot to create standalone, production-grade Spring applications and uses Spring Integration to provide connectivity to message brokers. It provides opinionated configuration of middleware from several vendors, introducing the concepts of persistent publish-subscribe semantics, consumer groups, and partitions.

You can add the @EnableBinding annotation to your application to get immediate connectivity to a message broker, and you can add @StreamListener to a method to cause it to receive events for stream processing. The following example shows a sink application that receives external messages:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class VoteRecordingSinkApplication {

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    SpringApplication.run(VoteRecordingSinkApplication.class, args);
  }

  @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
  public void processVote(Vote vote) {
      votingService.recordVote(vote);
  }
}

The @EnableBinding annotation takes one or more interfaces as parameters (in this case, the parameter is a single Sink interface). An interface declares input and output channels. Spring Cloud Stream provides the Source, Sink, and Processor interfaces. You can also define your own interfaces.

The following listing shows the definition of the Sink interface:

public interface Sink {
  String INPUT = "input";

  @Input(Sink.INPUT)
  SubscribableChannel input();
}

The @Input annotation identifies an input channel, through which received messages enter the application. The @Output annotation identifies an output channel, through which published messages leave the application. The @Input and @Output annotations can take a channel name as a parameter. If a name is not provided, the name of the annotated method is used.

Spring Cloud Stream creates an implementation of the interface for you. You can use this in the application by autowiring it, as shown in the following example (from a test case):

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@SpringApplicationConfiguration(classes = VoteRecordingSinkApplication.class)
@WebAppConfiguration
@DirtiesContext
public class StreamApplicationTests {

  @Autowired
  private Sink sink;

  @Test
  public void contextLoads() {
    assertNotNull(this.sink.input());
  }
}

4. Main Concepts

Spring Cloud Stream provides a number of abstractions and primitives that simplify the writing of message-driven microservice applications. This section gives an overview of the following:

4.1. Application Model

A Spring Cloud Stream application consists of a middleware-neutral core. The application communicates with the outside world through input and output channels injected into it by Spring Cloud Stream. Channels are connected to external brokers through middleware-specific Binder implementations.

SCSt with binder
Figure 1. Spring Cloud Stream Application

4.1.1. Fat JAR

Spring Cloud Stream applications can be run in stand-alone mode from your IDE for testing. To run a Spring Cloud Stream application in production, you can create an executable (or “fat”) JAR by using the standard Spring Boot tooling provided for Maven or Gradle. See the Spring Boot Reference Guide for more details.

4.2. The Binder Abstraction

Spring Cloud Stream provides Binder implementations for Kafka and Rabbit MQ. Spring Cloud Stream also includes a TestSupportBinder, which leaves a channel unmodified so that tests can interact with channels directly and reliably assert on what is received. You can also use the extensible API to write your own Binder.

Spring Cloud Stream uses Spring Boot for configuration, and the Binder abstraction makes it possible for a Spring Cloud Stream application to be flexible in how it connects to middleware. For example, deployers can dynamically choose, at runtime, the destinations (such as the Kafka topics or RabbitMQ exchanges) to which channels connect. Such configuration can be provided through external configuration properties and in any form supported by Spring Boot (including application arguments, environment variables, and application.yml or application.properties files). In the sink example from the Introducing Spring Cloud Stream section, setting the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination application property to raw-sensor-data causes it to read from the raw-sensor-data Kafka topic or from a queue bound to the raw-sensor-data RabbitMQ exchange.

Spring Cloud Stream automatically detects and uses a binder found on the classpath. You can use different types of middleware with the same code. To do so, include a different binder at build time. For more complex use cases, you can also package multiple binders with your application and have it choose the binder( and even whether to use different binders for different channels) at runtime.

4.3. Persistent Publish-Subscribe Support

Communication between applications follows a publish-subscribe model, where data is broadcast through shared topics. This can be seen in the following figure, which shows a typical deployment for a set of interacting Spring Cloud Stream applications.

SCSt sensors
Figure 2. Spring Cloud Stream Publish-Subscribe

Data reported by sensors to an HTTP endpoint is sent to a common destination named raw-sensor-data. From the destination, it is independently processed by a microservice application that computes time-windowed averages and by another microservice application that ingests the raw data into HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System). In order to process the data, both applications declare the topic as their input at runtime.

The publish-subscribe communication model reduces the complexity of both the producer and the consumer and lets new applications be added to the topology without disruption of the existing flow. For example, downstream from the average-calculating application, you can add an application that calculates the highest temperature values for display and monitoring. You can then add another application that interprets the same flow of averages for fault detection. Doing all communication through shared topics rather than point-to-point queues reduces coupling between microservices.

While the concept of publish-subscribe messaging is not new, Spring Cloud Stream takes the extra step of making it an opinionated choice for its application model. By using native middleware support, Spring Cloud Stream also simplifies use of the publish-subscribe model across different platforms.

4.4. Consumer Groups

While the publish-subscribe model makes it easy to connect applications through shared topics, the ability to scale up by creating multiple instances of a given application is equally important. When doing so, different instances of an application are placed in a competing consumer relationship, where only one of the instances is expected to handle a given message.

Spring Cloud Stream models this behavior through the concept of a consumer group. (Spring Cloud Stream consumer groups are similar to and inspired by Kafka consumer groups.) Each consumer binding can use the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.group property to specify a group name. For the consumers shown in the following figure, this property would be set as spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.group=hdfsWrite or spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.group=average.

SCSt groups
Figure 3. Spring Cloud Stream Consumer Groups

All groups that subscribe to a given destination receive a copy of published data, but only one member of each group receives a given message from that destination. By default, when a group is not specified, Spring Cloud Stream assigns the application to an anonymous and independent single-member consumer group that is in a publish-subscribe relationship with all other consumer groups.

4.5. Consumer Types

Two types of consumer are supported:

  • Message-driven (sometimes referred to as Asynchronous)

  • Polled (sometimes referred to as Synchronous)

Prior to version 2.0, only asynchronous consumers were supported. A message is delivered as soon as it is available and a thread is available to process it.

When you wish to control the rate at which messages are processed, you might want to use a synchronous consumer.

4.5.1. Durability

Consistent with the opinionated application model of Spring Cloud Stream, consumer group subscriptions are durable. That is, a binder implementation ensures that group subscriptions are persistent and that, once at least one subscription for a group has been created, the group receives messages, even if they are sent while all applications in the group are stopped.

Anonymous subscriptions are non-durable by nature. For some binder implementations (such as RabbitMQ), it is possible to have non-durable group subscriptions.

In general, it is preferable to always specify a consumer group when binding an application to a given destination. When scaling up a Spring Cloud Stream application, you must specify a consumer group for each of its input bindings. Doing so prevents the application’s instances from receiving duplicate messages (unless that behavior is desired, which is unusual).

4.6. Partitioning Support

Spring Cloud Stream provides support for partitioning data between multiple instances of a given application. In a partitioned scenario, the physical communication medium (such as the broker topic) is viewed as being structured into multiple partitions. One or more producer application instances send data to multiple consumer application instances and ensure that data identified by common characteristics are processed by the same consumer instance.

Spring Cloud Stream provides a common abstraction for implementing partitioned processing use cases in a uniform fashion. Partitioning can thus be used whether the broker itself is naturally partitioned (for example, Kafka) or not (for example, RabbitMQ).

SCSt partitioning
Figure 4. Spring Cloud Stream Partitioning

Partitioning is a critical concept in stateful processing, where it is critical (for either performance or consistency reasons) to ensure that all related data is processed together. For example, in the time-windowed average calculation example, it is important that all measurements from any given sensor are processed by the same application instance.

To set up a partitioned processing scenario, you must configure both the data-producing and the data-consuming ends.

5. Programming Model

To understand the programming model, you should be familiar with the following core concepts:

  • Destination Binders: Components responsible to provide integration with the external messaging systems.

  • Destination Bindings: Bridge between the external messaging systems and application provided Producers and Consumers of messages (created by the Destination Binders).

  • Message: The canonical data structure used by producers and consumers to communicate with Destination Binders (and thus other applications via external messaging systems).

SCSt overview

5.1. Destination Binders

Destination Binders are extension components of Spring Cloud Stream responsible for providing the necessary configuration and implementation to facilitate integration with external messaging systems. This integration is responsible for connectivity, delegation, and routing of messages to and from producers and consumers, data type conversion, invocation of the user code, and more.

Binders handle a lot of the boiler plate responsibilities that would otherwise fall on your shoulders. However, to accomplish that, the binder still needs some help in the form of minimalistic yet required set of instructions from the user, which typically come in the form of some type of configuration.

While it is out of scope of this section to discuss all of the available binder and binding configuration options (the rest of the manual covers them extensively), Destination Binding does require special attention. The next section discusses it in detail.

5.2. Destination Bindings

As stated earlier, Destination Bindings provide a bridge between the external messaging system and application-provided Producers and Consumers.

Applying the @EnableBinding annotation to one of the application’s configuration classes defines a destination binding. The @EnableBinding annotation itself is meta-annotated with @Configuration and triggers the configuration of the Spring Cloud Stream infrastructure.

The following example shows a fully configured and functioning Spring Cloud Stream application that receives the payload of the message from the INPUT destination as a String type (see Content Type Negotiation section), logs it to the console and sends it to the OUTPUT destination after converting it to upper case.

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Processor.class)
public class MyApplication {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(MyApplication.class, args);
	}

	@StreamListener(Processor.INPUT)
	@SendTo(Processor.OUTPUT)
	public String handle(String value) {
		System.out.println("Received: " + value);
		return value.toUpperCase();
	}
}

As you can see the @EnableBinding annotation can take one or more interface classes as parameters. The parameters are referred to as bindings, and they contain methods representing bindable components. These components are typically message channels (see Spring Messaging) for channel-based binders (such as Rabbit, Kafka, and others). However other types of bindings can provide support for the native features of the corresponding technology. For example Kafka Streams binder (formerly known as KStream) allows native bindings directly to Kafka Streams (see Kafka Streams for more details).

Spring Cloud Stream already provides binding interfaces for typical message exchange contracts, which include:

  • Sink: Identifies the contract for the message consumer by providing the destination from which the message is consumed.

  • Source: Identifies the contract for the message producer by providing the destination to which the produced message is sent.

  • Processor: Encapsulates both the sink and the source contracts by exposing two destinations that allow consumption and production of messages.

public interface Sink {

  String INPUT = "input";

  @Input(Sink.INPUT)
  SubscribableChannel input();
}
public interface Source {

  String OUTPUT = "output";

  @Output(Source.OUTPUT)
  MessageChannel output();
}
public interface Processor extends Source, Sink {}

While the preceding example satisfies the majority of cases, you can also define your own contracts by defining your own bindings interfaces and use @Input and @Output annotations to identify the actual bindable components.

For example:

public interface Barista {

    @Input
    SubscribableChannel orders();

    @Output
    MessageChannel hotDrinks();

    @Output
    MessageChannel coldDrinks();
}

Using the interface shown in the preceding example as a parameter to @EnableBinding triggers the creation of the three bound channels named orders, hotDrinks, and coldDrinks, respectively.

You can provide as many binding interfaces as you need, as arguments to the @EnableBinding annotation, as shown in the following example:

@EnableBinding(value = { Orders.class, Payment.class })

In Spring Cloud Stream, the bindable MessageChannel components are the Spring Messaging MessageChannel (for outbound) and its extension, SubscribableChannel, (for inbound).

Pollable Destination Binding

While the previously described bindings support event-based message consumption, sometimes you need more control, such as rate of consumption.

Starting with version 2.0, you can now bind a pollable consumer:

The following example shows how to bind a pollable consumer:

public interface PolledBarista {

    @Input
    PollableMessageSource orders();
	. . .
}

In this case, an implementation of PollableMessageSource is bound to the orders “channel”. See Using Polled Consumers for more details.

Customizing Channel Names

By using the @Input and @Output annotations, you can specify a customized channel name for the channel, as shown in the following example:

public interface Barista {
    @Input("inboundOrders")
    SubscribableChannel orders();
}

In the preceding example, the created bound channel is named inboundOrders.

Normally, you need not access individual channels or bindings directly (other then configuring them via @EnableBinding annotation). However there may be times, such as testing or other corner cases, when you do.

Aside from generating channels for each binding and registering them as Spring beans, for each bound interface, Spring Cloud Stream generates a bean that implements the interface. That means you can have access to the interfaces representing the bindings or individual channels by auto-wiring either in your application, as shown in the following two examples:

Autowire Binding interface

@Autowire
private Source source

public void sayHello(String name) {
    source.output().send(MessageBuilder.withPayload(name).build());
}

Autowire individual channel

@Autowire
private MessageChannel output;

public void sayHello(String name) {
    output.send(MessageBuilder.withPayload(name).build());
}

You can also use standard Spring’s @Qualifier annotation for cases when channel names are customized or in multiple-channel scenarios that require specifically named channels.

The following example shows how to use the @Qualifier annotation in this way:

@Autowire
@Qualifier("myChannel")
private MessageChannel output;

5.3. Producing and Consuming Messages

You can write a Spring Cloud Stream application by using either Spring Integration annotations or Spring Cloud Stream native annotation.

5.3.1. Spring Integration Support

Spring Cloud Stream is built on the concepts and patterns defined by Enterprise Integration Patterns and relies in its internal implementation on an already established and popular implementation of Enterprise Integration Patterns within the Spring portfolio of projects: Spring Integration framework.

So its only natiural for it to support the foundation, semantics, and configuration options that are already established by Spring Integration

For example, you can attach the output channel of a Source to a MessageSource and use the familiar @InboundChannelAdapter annotation, as follows:

@EnableBinding(Source.class)
public class TimerSource {

  @Bean
  @InboundChannelAdapter(value = Source.OUTPUT, poller = @Poller(fixedDelay = "10", maxMessagesPerPoll = "1"))
  public MessageSource<String> timerMessageSource() {
    return () -> new GenericMessage<>("Hello Spring Cloud Stream");
  }
}

Similarly, you can use @Transformer or @ServiceActivator while providing an implementation of a message handler method for a Processor binding contract, as shown in the following example:

@EnableBinding(Processor.class)
public class TransformProcessor {
  @Transformer(inputChannel = Processor.INPUT, outputChannel = Processor.OUTPUT)
  public Object transform(String message) {
    return message.toUpperCase();
  }
}
While this may be skipping ahead a bit, it is important to understand that, when you consume from the same binding using @StreamListener annotation, a pub-sub model is used. Each method annotated with @StreamListener receives its own copy of a message, and each one has its own consumer group. However, if you consume from the same binding by using one of the Spring Integration annotation (such as @Aggregator, @Transformer, or @ServiceActivator), those consume in a competing model. No individual consumer group is created for each subscription.

5.3.2. Using @StreamListener Annotation

Complementary to its Spring Integration support, Spring Cloud Stream provides its own @StreamListener annotation, modeled after other Spring Messaging annotations (@MessageMapping, @JmsListener, @RabbitListener, and others) and provides conviniences, such as content-based routing and others.

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class VoteHandler {

  @Autowired
  VotingService votingService;

  @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
  public void handle(Vote vote) {
    votingService.record(vote);
  }
}

As with other Spring Messaging methods, method arguments can be annotated with @Payload, @Headers, and @Header.

For methods that return data, you must use the @SendTo annotation to specify the output binding destination for data returned by the method, as shown in the following example:

@EnableBinding(Processor.class)
public class TransformProcessor {

  @Autowired
  VotingService votingService;

  @StreamListener(Processor.INPUT)
  @SendTo(Processor.OUTPUT)
  public VoteResult handle(Vote vote) {
    return votingService.record(vote);
  }
}

5.3.3. Using @StreamListener for Content-based routing

Spring Cloud Stream supports dispatching messages to multiple handler methods annotated with @StreamListener based on conditions.

In order to be eligible to support conditional dispatching, a method must satisfy the follow conditions:

  • It must not return a value.

  • It must be an individual message handling method (reactive API methods are not supported).

The condition is specified by a SpEL expression in the condition argument of the annotation and is evaluated for each message. All the handlers that match the condition are invoked in the same thread, and no assumption must be made about the order in which the invocations take place.

In the following example of a @StreamListener with dispatching conditions, all the messages bearing a header type with the value bogey are dispatched to the receiveBogey method, and all the messages bearing a header type with the value bacall are dispatched to the receiveBacall method.

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class TestPojoWithAnnotatedArguments {

    @StreamListener(target = Sink.INPUT, condition = "headers['type']=='bogey'")
    public void receiveBogey(@Payload BogeyPojo bogeyPojo) {
       // handle the message
    }

    @StreamListener(target = Sink.INPUT, condition = "headers['type']=='bacall'")
    public void receiveBacall(@Payload BacallPojo bacallPojo) {
       // handle the message
    }
}

Content Type Negotiation in the Context of condition

It is important to understand some of the mechanics behind content-based routing using the condition argument of @StreamListener, especially in the context of the type of the message as a whole. It may also help if you familiarize yourself with the Content Type Negotiation before you proceed.

Consider the following scenario:

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class CatsAndDogs {

    @StreamListener(target = Sink.INPUT, condition = "payload.class.simpleName=='Dog'")
    public void bark(Dog dog) {
       // handle the message
    }

    @StreamListener(target = Sink.INPUT, condition = "payload.class.simpleName=='Cat'")
    public void purr(Cat cat) {
       // handle the message
    }
}

The preceding code is perfectly valid. It compiles and deploys without any issues, yet it never produces the result you expect.

That is because you are testing something that does not yet exist in a state you expect. That is becouse the payload of the message is not yet converted from the wire format (byte[]) to the desired type. In other words, it has not yet gone through the type conversion process described in the Content Type Negotiation.

So, unless you use a SPeL expression that evaluates raw data (for example, the value of the first byte in the byte array), use message header-based expressions (such as condition = "headers['type']=='dog'").

At the moment, dispatching through @StreamListener conditions is supported only for channel-based binders (not for reactive programming) support.

5.3.4. Using Polled Consumers

When using polled consumers, you poll the PollableMessageSource on demand. Consider the following example of a polled consumer:

public interface PolledConsumer {

    @Input
    PollableMessageSource destIn();

    @Output
    MessageChannel destOut();

}

Given the polled consumer in the preceding example, you might use it as follows:

@Bean
public ApplicationRunner poller(PollableMessageSource destIn, MessageChannel destOut) {
    return args -> {
        while (someCondition()) {
            try {
                if (!destIn.poll(m -> {
                    String newPayload = ((String) m.getPayload()).toUpperCase();
                    destOut.send(new GenericMessage<>(newPayload));
                })) {
                    Thread.sleep(1000);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception e) {
                // handle failure (throw an exception to reject the message);
            }
        }
    };
}

The PollableMessageSource.poll() method takes a MessageHandler argument (often a lambda expression, as shown here). It returns true if the message was received and successfully processed.

As with message-driven consumers, if the MessageHandler throws an exception, messages are published to error channels, as discussed in “[binder-error-channels]”.

Normally, the poll() method acknowledges the message when the MessageHandler exits. If the method exits abnormally, the message is rejected (not re-queued). You can override that behavior by taking responsibility for the acknowledgment, as shown in the following example:

@Bean
public ApplicationRunner poller(PollableMessageSource dest1In, MessageChannel dest2Out) {
    return args -> {
        while (someCondition()) {
            if (!dest1In.poll(m -> {
                StaticMessageHeaderAccessor.getAcknowledgmentCallback(m).noAutoAck();
                // e.g. hand off to another thread which can perform the ack
                // or acknowledge(Status.REQUEUE)

            })) {
                Thread.sleep(1000);
            }
        }
    };
}
You must ack (or nack) the message at some point, to avoid resource leaks.
Some messaging systems (such as Apache Kafka) maintain a simple offset in a log. If a delivery fails and is re-queued with StaticMessageHeaderAccessor.getAcknowledgmentCallback(m).acknowledge(Status.REQUEUE);, any later successfully ack’d messages are redelivered.

There is also an overloaded poll method, for which the definition is as follows:

poll(MessageHandler handler, ParameterizedTypeReference<?> type)

The type is a conversion hint that allows the incoming message payload to be converted, as shown in the following example:

boolean result = pollableSource.poll(received -> {
			Map<String, Foo> payload = (Map<String, Foo>) received.getPayload();
            ...

		}, new ParameterizedTypeReference<Map<String, Foo>>() {});

5.4. Error Handling

Errors happen, and Spring Cloud Stream provides several flexible mechanisms to handle them. The error handling comes in two flavors:

  • application: The error handling is done within the application (custom error handler).

  • system: The error handling is delegated to the binder (re-queue, DL, and others). Note that the techniques are dependent on binder implementation and the capability of the underlying messaging middleware.

Spring Cloud Stream uses the Spring Retry library to facilitate successful message processing. See Retry Template for more details. However, when all fails, the exceptions thrown by the message handlers are propagated back to the binder. At that point, binder invokes custom error handler or communicates the error back to the messaging system (re-queue, DLQ, and others).

Application Error Handling

There are two types of application-level error handling. Errors can be handled at each binding subscription or a global handler can handle all the binding subscription errors. Let’s review the details.

custom vs global error channels
Figure 5. A Spring Cloud Stream Sink Application with Custom and Global Error Handlers

For each input binding, Spring Cloud Stream creates a dedicated error channel with the following semantics <destinationName>.errors.

The <destinationName> consists of the name of the binding (such as input) and the name of the group (such as myGroup).

Consider the following:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.group=myGroup
@StreamListener(Sink.INPUT) // destination name 'input.myGroup'
public void handle(Person value) {
	throw new RuntimeException("BOOM!");
}

@ServiceActivator(inputChannel = Processor.INPUT + ".myGroup.errors") //channel name 'input.myGroup.errors'
public void error(Message<?> message) {
	System.out.println("Handling ERROR: " + message);
}

In the preceding example the destination name is input.myGroup and the dedicated error channel name is input.myGroup.errors.

The use of @StreamListener annotation is intended specifically to define bindings that bridge internal channels and external destinations. Given that the destination specific error channel does NOT have an associated external destination, such channel is a prerogative of Spring Integration (SI). This means that the handler for such destination must be defined using one of the SI handler annotations (i.e., @ServiceActivator, @Transformer etc.).
If group is not specified anonymous group is used (something like input.anonymous.2K37rb06Q6m2r51-SPIDDQ), which is not suitable for error handling scenarious, since you don’t know what it’s going to be until the destination is created.

Also, in the event you are binding to the existing destination such as:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=myFooDestination
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.group=myGroup

the full destination name is myFooDestination.myGroup and then the dedicated error channel name is myFooDestination.myGroup.errors.

Back to the example…​

The handle(..) method, which subscribes to the channel named input, throws an exception. Given there is also a subscriber to the error channel input.myGroup.errors all error messages are handled by this subscriber.

If you have multiple bindings, you may want to have a single error handler. Spring Cloud Stream automatically provides support for a global error channel by bridging each individual error channel to the channel named errorChannel, allowing a single subscriber to handle all errors, as shown in the following example:

@StreamListener("errorChannel")
public void error(Message<?> message) {
	System.out.println("Handling ERROR: " + message);
}

This may be a convenient option if error handling logic is the same regardless of which handler produced the error.

Also, error messages sent to the errorChannel can be published to the specific destination at the broker by configuring a binding named error for the outbound target. This option provides a mechanism to automatically send error messages to another application bound to that destination or for later retrieval (for example, audit). For example, to publish error messages to a broker destination named myErrors, set the following property:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.error.destination=myErrors.
The ability to bridge global error channel to a broker destination essentially provides a mechanism which connects the application-level error handling with the system-level error handling.
System Error Handling

System-level error handling implies that the errors are communicated back to the messaging system and, given that not every messaging system is the same, the capabilities may differ from binder to binder.

That said, in this section we explain the general idea behind system level error handling and use Rabbit binder as an example. NOTE: Kafka binder provides similar support, although some configuration properties do differ. Also, for more details and configuration options, see the individual binder’s documentation.

If no internal error handlers are configured, the errors propagate to the binders, and the binders subsequently propagate those errors back to the messaging system. Depending on the capabilities of the messaging system such a system may drop the message, re-queue the message for re-processing or send the failed message to DLQ. Both Rabbit and Kafka support these concepts. However, other binders may not, so refer to your individual binder’s documentation for details on supported system-level error-handling options.

Drop Failed Messages

By default, if no additional system-level configuration is provided, the messaging system drops the failed message. While acceptable in some cases, for most cases, it is not, and we need some recovery mechanism to avoid message loss.

DLQ - Dead Letter Queue

DLQ allows failed messages to be sent to a special destination: - Dead Letter Queue.

When configured, failed messages are sent to this destination for subsequent re-processing or auditing and reconciliation.

For example, continuing on the previous example and to set up the DLQ with Rabbit binder, you need to set the following property:

spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.auto-bind-dlq=true

Keep in mind that, in the above property, input corresponds to the name of the input destination binding. The consumer indicates that it is a consumer property and auto-bind-dlq instructs the binder to configure DLQ for input destination, which results in an additional Rabbit queue named input.myGroup.dlq.

Once configured, all failed messages are routed to this queue with an error message similar to the following:

delivery_mode:	1
headers:
x-death:
count:	1
reason:	rejected
queue:	input.hello
time:	1522328151
exchange:
routing-keys:	input.myGroup
Payload {"name”:"Bob"}

As you can see from the above, your original message is preserved for further actions.

However, one thing you may have noticed is that there is limited information on the original issue with the message processing. For example, you do not see a stack trace corresponding to the original error. To get more relevant information about the original error, you must set an additional property:

spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.republish-to-dlq=true

Doing so forces the internal error handler to intercept the error message and add additional information to it before publishing it to DLQ. Once configured, you can see that the error message contains more information relevant to the original error, as follows:

delivery_mode:	2
headers:
x-original-exchange:
x-exception-message:	has an error
x-original-routingKey:	input.myGroup
x-exception-stacktrace:	org.springframework.messaging.MessageHandlingException: nested exception is
      org.springframework.messaging.MessagingException: has an error, failedMessage=GenericMessage [payload=byte[15],
      headers={amqp_receivedDeliveryMode=NON_PERSISTENT, amqp_receivedRoutingKey=input.hello, amqp_deliveryTag=1,
      deliveryAttempt=3, amqp_consumerQueue=input.hello, amqp_redelivered=false, id=a15231e6-3f80-677b-5ad7-d4b1e61e486e,
      amqp_consumerTag=amq.ctag-skBFapilvtZhDsn0k3ZmQg, contentType=application/json, timestamp=1522327846136}]
      at org.spring...integ...han...MethodInvokingMessageProcessor.processMessage(MethodInvokingMessageProcessor.java:107)
      at. . . . .
Payload {"name”:"Bob"}

This effectively combines application-level and system-level error handling to further assist with downstream troubleshooting mechanics.

Re-queue Failed Messages

As mentioned earlier, the currently supported binders (Rabbit and Kafka) rely on RetryTemplate to facilitate successful message processing. See Retry Template for details. However, for cases when max-attempts property is set to 1, internal reprocessing of the message is disabled. At this point, you can facilitate message re-processing (re-tries) by instructing the messaging system to re-queue the failed message. Once re-queued, the failed message is sent back to the original handler, essentially creating a retry loop.

This option may be feasible for cases where the nature of the error is related to some sporadic yet short-term unavailability of some resource.

To accomplish that, you must set the following properties:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.consumer.max-attempts=1
spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.requeue-rejected=true

In the preceding example, the max-attempts set to 1 essentially disabling internal re-tries and requeue-rejected (short for requeue rejected messages) is set to true. Once set, the failed message is resubmitted to the same handler and loops continuously or until the handler throws AmqpRejectAndDontRequeueException essentially allowing you to build your own re-try logic within the handler itself.

Retry Template

The RetryTemplate is part of the Spring Retry library. While it is out of scope of this document to cover all of the capabilities of the RetryTemplate, we will mention the following consumer properties that are specifically related to the RetryTemplate:

maxAttempts

The number of attempts to process the message.

Default: 3.

backOffInitialInterval

The backoff initial interval on retry.

Default 1000 milliseconds.

backOffMaxInterval

The maximum backoff interval.

Default 10000 milliseconds.

backOffMultiplier

The backoff multiplier.

Default 2.0.

While the preceding settings are sufficient for majority of the customization requirements, they may not satisfy certain complex requirements at, which point you may want to provide your own instance of the RetryTemplate. To do so configure it as a bean in your application configuration. The application provided instance will override the one provided by the framework. Also, to avoid conflicts you must qualify the instance of the RetryTemplate you want to be used by the binder as @StreamRetryTemplate. For example,

@StreamRetryTemplate
public RetryTemplate myRetryTemplate() {
    return new RetryTemplate();
}

As you can see from the above example you don’t need to annotate it with @Bean since @StreamRetryTemplate is a qualified @Bean.

5.5. Reactive Programming Support

Spring Cloud Stream also supports the use of reactive APIs where incoming and outgoing data is handled as continuous data flows. Support for reactive APIs is available through spring-cloud-stream-reactive, which needs to be added explicitly to your project.

The programming model with reactive APIs is declarative. Instead of specifying how each individual message should be handled, you can use operators that describe functional transformations from inbound to outbound data flows.

At present Spring Cloud Stream supports the only the Reactor API. In the future, we intend to support a more generic model based on Reactive Streams.

The reactive programming model also uses the @StreamListener annotation for setting up reactive handlers. The differences are that:

  • The @StreamListener annotation must not specify an input or output, as they are provided as arguments and return values from the method.

  • The arguments of the method must be annotated with @Input and @Output, indicating which input or output the incoming and outgoing data flows connect to, respectively.

  • The return value of the method, if any, is annotated with @Output, indicating the input where data should be sent.

Reactive programming support requires Java 1.8.
As of Spring Cloud Stream 1.1.1 and later (starting with release train Brooklyn.SR2), reactive programming support requires the use of Reactor 3.0.4.RELEASE and higher. Earlier Reactor versions (including 3.0.1.RELEASE, 3.0.2.RELEASE and 3.0.3.RELEASE) are not supported. spring-cloud-stream-reactive transitively retrieves the proper version, but it is possible for the project structure to manage the version of the io.projectreactor:reactor-core to an earlier release, especially when using Maven. This is the case for projects generated by using Spring Initializr with Spring Boot 1.x, which overrides the Reactor version to 2.0.8.RELEASE. In such cases, you must ensure that the proper version of the artifact is released. You can do so by adding a direct dependency on io.projectreactor:reactor-core with a version of 3.0.4.RELEASE or later to your project.
The use of term, “reactive”, currently refers to the reactive APIs being used and not to the execution model being reactive (that is, the bound endpoints still use a 'push' rather than a 'pull' model). While some backpressure support is provided by the use of Reactor, we do intend, in a future release, to support entirely reactive pipelines by the use of native reactive clients for the connected middleware.
Reactor-based Handlers

A Reactor-based handler can have the following argument types:

  • For arguments annotated with @Input, it supports the Reactor Flux type. The parameterization of the inbound Flux follows the same rules as in the case of individual message handling: It can be the entire Message, a POJO that can be the Message payload, or a POJO that is the result of a transformation based on the Message content-type header. Multiple inputs are provided.

  • For arguments annotated with Output, it supports the FluxSender type, which connects a Flux produced by the method with an output. Generally speaking, specifying outputs as arguments is only recommended when the method can have multiple outputs.

A Reactor-based handler supports a return type of Flux. In that case, it must be annotated with @Output. We recommend using the return value of the method when a single output Flux is available.

The following example shows a Reactor-based Processor:

@EnableBinding(Processor.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class UppercaseTransformer {

  @StreamListener
  @Output(Processor.OUTPUT)
  public Flux<String> receive(@Input(Processor.INPUT) Flux<String> input) {
    return input.map(s -> s.toUpperCase());
  }
}

The same processor using output arguments looks like the following example:

@EnableBinding(Processor.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class UppercaseTransformer {

  @StreamListener
  public void receive(@Input(Processor.INPUT) Flux<String> input,
     @Output(Processor.OUTPUT) FluxSender output) {
     output.send(input.map(s -> s.toUpperCase()));
  }
}
Reactive Sources

Spring Cloud Stream reactive support also provides the ability for creating reactive sources through the @StreamEmitter annotation. By using the @StreamEmitter annotation, a regular source may be converted to a reactive one. @StreamEmitter is a method level annotation that marks a method to be an emitter to outputs declared with @EnableBinding. You cannot use the @Input annotation along with @StreamEmitter, as the methods marked with this annotation are not listening for any input. Rather, methods marked with @StreamEmitter generate output. Following the same programming model used in @StreamListener, @StreamEmitter also allows flexible ways of using the @Output annotation, depending on whether the method has any arguments, a return type, and other considerations.

The remainder of this section contains examples of using the @StreamEmitter annotation in various styles.

The following example emits the Hello, World message every millisecond and publishes to a Reactor Flux:

@EnableBinding(Source.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class HelloWorldEmitter {

  @StreamEmitter
  @Output(Source.OUTPUT)
  public Flux<String> emit() {
    return Flux.intervalMillis(1)
            .map(l -> "Hello World");
  }
}

In the preceding example, the resulting messages in the Flux are sent to the output channel of the Source.

The next example is another flavor of an @StreamEmmitter that sends a Reactor Flux. Instead of returning a Flux, the following method uses a FluxSender to programmatically send a Flux from a source:

@EnableBinding(Source.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class HelloWorldEmitter {

  @StreamEmitter
  @Output(Source.OUTPUT)
  public void emit(FluxSender output) {
    output.send(Flux.intervalMillis(1)
            .map(l -> "Hello World"));
  }
}

The next example is exactly same as the above snippet in functionality and style. However, instead of using an explicit @Output annotation on the method, it uses the annotation on the method parameter.

@EnableBinding(Source.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class HelloWorldEmitter {

  @StreamEmitter
  public void emit(@Output(Source.OUTPUT) FluxSender output) {
    output.send(Flux.intervalMillis(1)
            .map(l -> "Hello World"));
  }
}

The last example in this section is yet another flavor of writing reacting sources by using the Reactive Streams Publisher API and taking advantage of the support for it in Spring Integration Java DSL. The Publisher in the following example still uses Reactor Flux under the hood, but, from an application perspective, that is transparent to the user and only needs Reactive Streams and Java DSL for Spring Integration:

@EnableBinding(Source.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class HelloWorldEmitter {

  @StreamEmitter
  @Output(Source.OUTPUT)
  @Bean
  public Publisher<Message<String>> emit() {
    return IntegrationFlows.from(() ->
                new GenericMessage<>("Hello World"),
        e -> e.poller(p -> p.fixedDelay(1)))
        .toReactivePublisher();
  }
}

6. Binders

Spring Cloud Stream provides a Binder abstraction for use in connecting to physical destinations at the external middleware. This section provides information about the main concepts behind the Binder SPI, its main components, and implementation-specific details.

6.1. Producers and Consumers

The following image shows the general relationship of producers and consumers:

producers consumers
Figure 6. Producers and Consumers

A producer is any component that sends messages to a channel. The channel can be bound to an external message broker with a Binder implementation for that broker. When invoking the bindProducer() method, the first parameter is the name of the destination within the broker, the second parameter is the local channel instance to which the producer sends messages, and the third parameter contains properties (such as a partition key expression) to be used within the adapter that is created for that channel.

A consumer is any component that receives messages from a channel. As with a producer, the consumer’s channel can be bound to an external message broker. When invoking the bindConsumer() method, the first parameter is the destination name, and a second parameter provides the name of a logical group of consumers. Each group that is represented by consumer bindings for a given destination receives a copy of each message that a producer sends to that destination (that is, it follows normal publish-subscribe semantics). If there are multiple consumer instances bound with the same group name, then messages are load-balanced across those consumer instances so that each message sent by a producer is consumed by only a single consumer instance within each group (that is, it follows normal queueing semantics).

6.2. Binder SPI

The Binder SPI consists of a number of interfaces, out-of-the box utility classes, and discovery strategies that provide a pluggable mechanism for connecting to external middleware.

The key point of the SPI is the Binder interface, which is a strategy for connecting inputs and outputs to external middleware. The following listing shows the definnition of the Binder interface:

public interface Binder<T, C extends ConsumerProperties, P extends ProducerProperties> {
    Binding<T> bindConsumer(String name, String group, T inboundBindTarget, C consumerProperties);

    Binding<T> bindProducer(String name, T outboundBindTarget, P producerProperties);
}

The interface is parameterized, offering a number of extension points:

  • Input and output bind targets. As of version 1.0, only MessageChannel is supported, but this is intended to be used as an extension point in the future.

  • Extended consumer and producer properties, allowing specific Binder implementations to add supplemental properties that can be supported in a type-safe manner.

A typical binder implementation consists of the following:

  • A class that implements the Binder interface;

  • A Spring @Configuration class that creates a bean of type Binder along with the middleware connection infrastructure.

  • A META-INF/spring.binders file found on the classpath containing one or more binder definitions, as shown in the following example:

    kafka:\
    org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.kafka.config.KafkaBinderConfiguration

6.3. Binder Detection

Spring Cloud Stream relies on implementations of the Binder SPI to perform the task of connecting channels to message brokers. Each Binder implementation typically connects to one type of messaging system.

6.3.1. Classpath Detection

By default, Spring Cloud Stream relies on Spring Boot’s auto-configuration to configure the binding process. If a single Binder implementation is found on the classpath, Spring Cloud Stream automatically uses it. For example, a Spring Cloud Stream project that aims to bind only to RabbitMQ can add the following dependency:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

For the specific Maven coordinates of other binder dependencies, see the documentation of that binder implementation.

6.4. Multiple Binders on the Classpath

When multiple binders are present on the classpath, the application must indicate which binder is to be used for each channel binding. Each binder configuration contains a META-INF/spring.binders file, which is a simple properties file, as shown in the following example:

rabbit:\
org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.rabbit.config.RabbitServiceAutoConfiguration

Similar files exist for the other provided binder implementations (such as Kafka), and custom binder implementations are expected to provide them as well. The key represents an identifying name for the binder implementation, whereas the value is a comma-separated list of configuration classes that each contain one and only one bean definition of type org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.Binder.

Binder selection can either be performed globally, using the spring.cloud.stream.defaultBinder property (for example, spring.cloud.stream.defaultBinder=rabbit) or individually, by configuring the binder on each channel binding. For instance, a processor application (that has channels named input and output for read and write respectively) that reads from Kafka and writes to RabbitMQ can specify the following configuration:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.binder=kafka
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.binder=rabbit

6.5. Connecting to Multiple Systems

By default, binders share the application’s Spring Boot auto-configuration, so that one instance of each binder found on the classpath is created. If your application should connect to more than one broker of the same type, you can specify multiple binder configurations, each with different environment settings.

Turning on explicit binder configuration disables the default binder configuration process altogether. If you do so, all binders in use must be included in the configuration. Frameworks that intend to use Spring Cloud Stream transparently may create binder configurations that can be referenced by name, but they do not affect the default binder configuration. In order to do so, a binder configuration may have its defaultCandidate flag set to false (for example, spring.cloud.stream.binders.<configurationName>.defaultCandidate=false). This denotes a configuration that exists independently of the default binder configuration process.

The following example shows a typical configuration for a processor application that connects to two RabbitMQ broker instances:

spring:
  cloud:
    stream:
      bindings:
        input:
          destination: thing1
          binder: rabbit1
        output:
          destination: thing2
          binder: rabbit2
      binders:
        rabbit1:
          type: rabbit
          environment:
            spring:
              rabbitmq:
                host: <host1>
        rabbit2:
          type: rabbit
          environment:
            spring:
              rabbitmq:
                host: <host2>

6.6. Binding visualization and control

Since version 2.0, Spring Cloud Stream supports visualization and control of the Bindings through Actuator endpoints.

Starting with version 2.0 actuator and web are optional, you must first add one of the web dependencies as well as add the actuator dependency manually. The following example shows how to add the dependency for the Web framework:

<dependency>
     <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
     <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
</dependency>

The following example shows how to add the dependency for the WebFlux framework:

<dependency>
       <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
       <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webflux</artifactId>
</dependency>

You can add the Actuator dependency as follows:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-actuator</artifactId>
</dependency>
To run Spring Cloud Stream 2.0 apps in Cloud Foundry, you must add spring-boot-starter-web and spring-boot-starter-actuator to the classpath. Otherwise, the application will not start due to health check failures.

You must also enable the bindings actuator endpoints by setting the following property: --management.endpoints.web.exposure.include=bindings.

Once those prerequisites are satisfied. you should see the following in the logs when application start:

: Mapped "{[/actuator/bindings/{name}],methods=[POST]. . .
: Mapped "{[/actuator/bindings],methods=[GET]. . .
: Mapped "{[/actuator/bindings/{name}],methods=[GET]. . .

To visualize the current bindings, access the following URL: <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings

Alternative, to see a single binding, access one of the URLs similar to the following: <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings/myBindingName

You can also stop, start, pause, and resume individual bindings by posting to the same URL while providing a state argument as JSON, as shown in the following examples:

curl -d '{"state":"STOPPED"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings/myBindingName curl -d '{"state":"STARTED"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings/myBindingName curl -d '{"state":"PAUSED"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings/myBindingName curl -d '{"state":"RESUMED"}' -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST <host>:<port>/actuator/bindings/myBindingName

PAUSED and RESUMED work only when the corresponding binder and its underlying technology supports it. Otherwise, you see the warning message in the logs. Currently, only Kafka binder supports the PAUSED and RESUMED states.

6.7. Binder Configuration Properties

The following properties are available when customizing binder configurations. These properties exposed via org.springframework.cloud.stream.config.BinderProperties

They must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.binders.<configurationName>.

type

The binder type. It typically references one of the binders found on the classpath — in particular, a key in a META-INF/spring.binders file.

By default, it has the same value as the configuration name.

inheritEnvironment

Whether the configuration inherits the environment of the application itself.

Default: true.

environment

Root for a set of properties that can be used to customize the environment of the binder. When this property is set, the context in which the binder is being created is not a child of the application context. This setting allows for complete separation between the binder components and the application components.

Default: empty.

defaultCandidate

Whether the binder configuration is a candidate for being considered a default binder or can be used only when explicitly referenced. This setting allows adding binder configurations without interfering with the default processing.

Default: true.

7. Configuration Options

Spring Cloud Stream supports general configuration options as well as configuration for bindings and binders. Some binders let additional binding properties support middleware-specific features.

Configuration options can be provided to Spring Cloud Stream applications through any mechanism supported by Spring Boot. This includes application arguments, environment variables, and YAML or .properties files.

7.1. Binding Service Properties

These properties are exposed via org.springframework.cloud.stream.config.BindingServiceProperties

spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount

The number of deployed instances of an application. Must be set for partitioning on the producer side. Must be set on the consumer side when using RabbitMQ and with Kafka if autoRebalanceEnabled=false.

Default: 1.

spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex

The instance index of the application: A number from 0 to instanceCount - 1. Used for partitioning with RabbitMQ and with Kafka if autoRebalanceEnabled=false. Automatically set in Cloud Foundry to match the application’s instance index.

spring.cloud.stream.dynamicDestinations

A list of destinations that can be bound dynamically (for example, in a dynamic routing scenario). If set, only listed destinations can be bound.

Default: empty (letting any destination be bound).

spring.cloud.stream.defaultBinder

The default binder to use, if multiple binders are configured. See Multiple Binders on the Classpath.

Default: empty.

spring.cloud.stream.overrideCloudConnectors

This property is only applicable when the cloud profile is active and Spring Cloud Connectors are provided with the application. If the property is false (the default), the binder detects a suitable bound service (for example, a RabbitMQ service bound in Cloud Foundry for the RabbitMQ binder) and uses it for creating connections (usually through Spring Cloud Connectors). When set to true, this property instructs binders to completely ignore the bound services and rely on Spring Boot properties (for example, relying on the spring.rabbitmq.* properties provided in the environment for the RabbitMQ binder). The typical usage of this property is to be nested in a customized environment when connecting to multiple systems.

Default: false.

spring.cloud.stream.bindingRetryInterval

The interval (in seconds) between retrying binding creation when, for example, the binder does not support late binding and the broker (for example, Apache Kafka) is down. Set it to zero to treat such conditions as fatal, preventing the application from starting.

Default: 30

7.2. Binding Properties

Binding properties are supplied by using the format of spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.<property>=<value>. The <channelName> represents the name of the channel being configured (for example, output for a Source).

To avoid repetition, Spring Cloud Stream supports setting values for all channels, in the format of spring.cloud.stream.default.<property>=<value>.

In what follows, we indicate where we have omitted the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>. prefix and focus just on the property name, with the understanding that the prefix ise included at runtime.

7.2.1. Common Binding Properties

These properties are exposed via org.springframework.cloud.stream.config.BindingProperties

The following binding properties are available for both input and output bindings and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>. (for example, spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=ticktock).

Default values can be set by using the spring.cloud.stream.default prefix (for example`spring.cloud.stream.default.contentType=application/json`).

destination

The target destination of a channel on the bound middleware (for example, the RabbitMQ exchange or Kafka topic). If the channel is bound as a consumer, it could be bound to multiple destinations, and the destination names can be specified as comma-separated String values. If not set, the channel name is used instead. The default value of this property cannot be overridden.

group

The consumer group of the channel. Applies only to inbound bindings. See Consumer Groups.

Default: null (indicating an anonymous consumer).

contentType

The content type of the channel. See “Content Type Negotiation”.

Default: application/json.

binder

The binder used by this binding. See “Multiple Binders on the Classpath” for details.

Default: null (the default binder is used, if it exists).

7.2.2. Consumer Properties

These properties are exposed via org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.ConsumerProperties

The following binding properties are available for input bindings only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.consumer. (for example, spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.consumer.concurrency=3).

Default values can be set by using the spring.cloud.stream.default.consumer prefix (for example, spring.cloud.stream.default.consumer.headerMode=none).

concurrency

The concurrency of the inbound consumer.

Default: 1.

partitioned

Whether the consumer receives data from a partitioned producer.

Default: false.

headerMode

When set to none, disables header parsing on input. Effective only for messaging middleware that does not support message headers natively and requires header embedding. This option is useful when consuming data from non-Spring Cloud Stream applications when native headers are not supported. When set to headers, it uses the middleware’s native header mechanism. When set to embeddedHeaders, it embeds headers into the message payload.

Default: depends on the binder implementation.

maxAttempts

If processing fails, the number of attempts to process the message (including the first). Set to 1 to disable retry.

Default: 3.

backOffInitialInterval

The backoff initial interval on retry.

Default: 1000.

backOffMaxInterval

The maximum backoff interval.

Default: 10000.

backOffMultiplier

The backoff multiplier.

Default: 2.0.

instanceIndex

When set to a value greater than equal to zero, it allows customizing the instance index of this consumer (if different from spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex). When set to a negative value, it defaults to spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex. See “Instance Index and Instance Count” for more information.

Default: -1.

instanceCount

When set to a value greater than equal to zero, it allows customizing the instance count of this consumer (if different from spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount). When set to a negative value, it defaults to spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount. See “Instance Index and Instance Count” for more information.

Default: -1.

useNativeDecoding

When set to true, the inbound message is deserialized directly by the client library, which must be configured correspondingly (for example, setting an appropriate Kafka producer value deserializer). When this configuration is being used, the inbound message unmarshalling is not based on the contentType of the binding. When native decoding is used, it is the responsibility of the producer to use an appropriate encoder (for example, the Kafka producer value serializer) to serialize the outbound message. Also, when native encoding and decoding is used, the headerMode=embeddedHeaders property is ignored and headers are not embedded in the message. See the producer property useNativeEncoding.

Default: false.

7.2.3. Producer Properties

These properties are exposed via org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.ProducerProperties

The following binding properties are available for output bindings only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.producer. (for example, spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.producer.partitionKeyExpression=payload.id).

Default values can be set by using the prefix spring.cloud.stream.default.producer (for example, spring.cloud.stream.default.producer.partitionKeyExpression=payload.id).

partitionKeyExpression

A SpEL expression that determines how to partition outbound data. If set, or if partitionKeyExtractorClass is set, outbound data on this channel is partitioned. partitionCount must be set to a value greater than 1 to be effective. Mutually exclusive with partitionKeyExtractorClass. See “Partitioning Support”.

Default: null.

partitionKeyExtractorClass

A PartitionKeyExtractorStrategy implementation. If set, or if partitionKeyExpression is set, outbound data on this channel is partitioned. partitionCount must be set to a value greater than 1 to be effective. Mutually exclusive with partitionKeyExpression. See “Partitioning Support”.

Default: null.

partitionSelectorClass

A PartitionSelectorStrategy implementation. Mutually exclusive with partitionSelectorExpression. If neither is set, the partition is selected as the hashCode(key) % partitionCount, where key is computed through either partitionKeyExpression or partitionKeyExtractorClass.

Default: null.

partitionSelectorExpression

A SpEL expression for customizing partition selection. Mutually exclusive with partitionSelectorClass. If neither is set, the partition is selected as the hashCode(key) % partitionCount, where key is computed through either partitionKeyExpression or partitionKeyExtractorClass.

Default: null.

partitionCount

The number of target partitions for the data, if partitioning is enabled. Must be set to a value greater than 1 if the producer is partitioned. On Kafka, it is interpreted as a hint. The larger of this and the partition count of the target topic is used instead.

Default: 1.

requiredGroups

A comma-separated list of groups to which the producer must ensure message delivery even if they start after it has been created (for example, by pre-creating durable queues in RabbitMQ).

headerMode

When set to none, it disables header embedding on output. It is effective only for messaging middleware that does not support message headers natively and requires header embedding. This option is useful when producing data for non-Spring Cloud Stream applications when native headers are not supported. When set to headers, it uses the middleware’s native header mechanism. When set to embeddedHeaders, it embeds headers into the message payload.

Default: Depends on the binder implementation.

useNativeEncoding

When set to true, the outbound message is serialized directly by the client library, which must be configured correspondingly (for example, setting an appropriate Kafka producer value serializer). When this configuration is being used, the outbound message marshalling is not based on the contentType of the binding. When native encoding is used, it is the responsibility of the consumer to use an appropriate decoder (for example, the Kafka consumer value de-serializer) to deserialize the inbound message. Also, when native encoding and decoding is used, the headerMode=embeddedHeaders property is ignored and headers are not embedded in the message. See the consumer property useNativeDecoding.

Default: false.

errorChannelEnabled

When set to true, if the binder supports asynchroous send results, send failures are sent to an error channel for the destination. See “[binder-error-channels]” for more information.

Default: false.

7.3. Using Dynamically Bound Destinations

Besides the channels defined by using @EnableBinding, Spring Cloud Stream lets applications send messages to dynamically bound destinations. This is useful, for example, when the target destination needs to be determined at runtime. Applications can do so by using the BinderAwareChannelResolver bean, registered automatically by the @EnableBinding annotation.

The 'spring.cloud.stream.dynamicDestinations' property can be used for restricting the dynamic destination names to a known set (whitelisting). If this property is not set, any destination can be bound dynamically.

The BinderAwareChannelResolver can be used directly, as shown in the following example of a REST controller using a path variable to decide the target channel:

@EnableBinding
@Controller
public class SourceWithDynamicDestination {

    @Autowired
    private BinderAwareChannelResolver resolver;

    @RequestMapping(path = "/{target}", method = POST, consumes = "*/*")
    @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.ACCEPTED)
    public void handleRequest(@RequestBody String body, @PathVariable("target") target,
           @RequestHeader(HttpHeaders.CONTENT_TYPE) Object contentType) {
        sendMessage(body, target, contentType);
    }

    private void sendMessage(String body, String target, Object contentType) {
        resolver.resolveDestination(target).send(MessageBuilder.createMessage(body,
                new MessageHeaders(Collections.singletonMap(MessageHeaders.CONTENT_TYPE, contentType))));
    }
}

Now consider what happens when we start the application on the default port (8080) and make the following requests with CURL:

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "customer-1" http://localhost:8080/customers

curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d "order-1" http://localhost:8080/orders

The destinations, 'customers' and 'orders', are created in the broker (in the exchange for Rabbit or in the topic for Kafka) with names of 'customers' and 'orders', and the data is published to the appropriate destinations.

The BinderAwareChannelResolver is a general-purpose Spring Integration DestinationResolver and can be injected in other components — for example, in a router using a SpEL expression based on the target field of an incoming JSON message. The following example includes a router that reads SpEL expressions:

@EnableBinding
@Controller
public class SourceWithDynamicDestination {

    @Autowired
    private BinderAwareChannelResolver resolver;


    @RequestMapping(path = "/", method = POST, consumes = "application/json")
    @ResponseStatus(HttpStatus.ACCEPTED)
    public void handleRequest(@RequestBody String body, @RequestHeader(HttpHeaders.CONTENT_TYPE) Object contentType) {
        sendMessage(body, contentType);
    }

    private void sendMessage(Object body, Object contentType) {
        routerChannel().send(MessageBuilder.createMessage(body,
                new MessageHeaders(Collections.singletonMap(MessageHeaders.CONTENT_TYPE, contentType))));
    }

    @Bean(name = "routerChannel")
    public MessageChannel routerChannel() {
        return new DirectChannel();
    }

    @Bean
    @ServiceActivator(inputChannel = "routerChannel")
    public ExpressionEvaluatingRouter router() {
        ExpressionEvaluatingRouter router =
            new ExpressionEvaluatingRouter(new SpelExpressionParser().parseExpression("payload.target"));
        router.setDefaultOutputChannelName("default-output");
        router.setChannelResolver(resolver);
        return router;
    }
}

The Router Sink Application uses this technique to create the destinations on-demand.

If the channel names are known in advance, you can configure the producer properties as with any other destination. Alternatively, if you register a NewBindingCallback<> bean, it is invoked just before the binding is created. The callback takes the generic type of the extended producer properties used by the binder. It has one method:

void configure(String channelName, MessageChannel channel, ProducerProperties producerProperties,
        T extendedProducerProperties);

The following example shows how to use the RabbitMQ binder:

@Bean
public NewBindingCallback<RabbitProducerProperties> dynamicConfigurer() {
    return (name, channel, props, extended) -> {
        props.setRequiredGroups("bindThisQueue");
        extended.setQueueNameGroupOnly(true);
        extended.setAutoBindDlq(true);
        extended.setDeadLetterQueueName("myDLQ");
    };
}
If you need to support dynamic destinations with multiple binder types, use Object for the generic type and cast the extended argument as needed.

8. Content Type Negotiation

Data transformation is one of the core features of any message-driven microservice architecture. Given that, in Spring Cloud Stream, such data is represented as a Spring Message, a message may have to be transformed to a desired shape or size before reaching its destination. This is required for two reasons:

  1. To convert the contents of the incoming message to match the signature of the application-provided handler.

  2. To convert the contents of the outgoing message to the wire format.

The wire format is typically byte[] (that is true for the Kafka and Rabbit binders), but it is governed by the binder implementation.

In Spring Cloud Stream, message transformation is accomplished with an org.springframework.messaging.converter.MessageConverter.

As a supplement to the details to follow, you may also want to read the following blog post.

8.1. Mechanics

To better understand the mechanics and the necessity behind content-type negotiation, we take a look at a very simple use case by using the following message handler as an example:

@StreamListener(Processor.INPUT)
@SendTo(Processor.OUTPUT)
public String handle(Person person) {..}
For simplicity, we assume that this is the only handler in the application (we assume there is no internal pipeline).

The handler shown in the preceding example expects a Person object as an argument and produces a String type as an output. In order for the framework to succeed in passing the incoming Message as an argument to this handler, it has to somehow transform the payload of the Message type from the wire format to a Person type. In other words, the framework must locate and apply the appropriate MessageConverter. To accomplish that, the framework needs some instructions from the user. One of these instructions is already provided by the signature of the handler method itself (Person type). Consequently, in theory, that should be (and, in some cases, is) enough. However, for the majority of use cases, in order to select the appropriate MessageConverter, the framework needs an additional piece of information. That missing piece is contentType.

Spring Cloud Stream provides three mechanisms to define contentType (in order of precedence):

  1. HEADER: The contentType can be communicated through the Message itself. By providing a contentType header, you declare the content type to use to locate and apply the appropriate MessageConverter.

  2. BINDING: The contentType can be set per destination binding by setting the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.content-type property.

    The input segment in the property name corresponds to the actual name of the destination (which is “input” in our case). This approach lets you declare, on a per-binding basis, the content type to use to locate and apply the appropriate MessageConverter.
  3. DEFAULT: If contentType is not present in the Message header or the binding, the default application/json content type is used to locate and apply the appropriate MessageConverter.

As mentioned earlier, the preceding list also demonstrates the order of precedence in case of a tie. For example, a header-provided content type takes precedence over any other content type. The same applies for a content type set on a per-binding basis, which essentially lets you override the default content type. However, it also provides a sensible default (which was determined from community feedback).

Another reason for making application/json the default stems from the interoperability requirements driven by distributed microservices architectures, where producer and consumer not only run in different JVMs but can also run on different non-JVM platforms.

When the non-void handler method returns, if the the return value is already a Message, that Message becomes the payload. However, when the return value is not a Message, the new Message is constructed with the return value as the payload while inheriting headers from the input Message minus the headers defined or filtered by SpringIntegrationProperties.messageHandlerNotPropagatedHeaders. By default, there is only one header set there: contentType. This means that the new Message does not have contentType header set, thus ensuring that the contentType can evolve. You can always opt out of returning a Message from the handler method where you can inject any header you wish.

If there is an internal pipeline, the Message is sent to the next handler by going through the same process of conversion. However, if there is no internal pipeline or you have reached the end of it, the Message is sent back to the output destination.

8.1.1. Content Type versus Argument Type

As mentioned earlier, for the framework to select the appropriate MessageConverter, it requires argument type and, optionally, content type information. The logic for selecting the appropriate MessageConverter resides with the argument resolvers (HandlerMethodArgumentResolvers), which trigger right before the invocation of the user-defined handler method (which is when the actual argument type is known to the framework). If the argument type does not match the type of the current payload, the framework delegates to the stack of the pre-configured MessageConverters to see if any one of them can convert the payload. As you can see, the Object fromMessage(Message<?> message, Class<?> targetClass); operation of the MessageConverter takes targetClass as one of its arguments. The framework also ensures that the provided Message always contains a contentType header. When no contentType header was already present, it injects either the per-binding contentType header or the default contentType header. The combination of contentType argument type is the mechanism by which framework determines if message can be converted to a target type. If no appropriate MessageConverter is found, an exception is thrown, which you can handle by adding a custom MessageConverter (see “User-defined Message Converters”).

But what if the payload type matches the target type declared by the handler method? In this case, there is nothing to convert, and the payload is passed unmodified. While this sounds pretty straightforward and logical, keep in mind handler methods that take a Message<?> or Object as an argument. By declaring the target type to be Object (which is an instanceof everything in Java), you essentially forfeit the conversion process.

Do not expect Message to be converted into some other type based only on the contentType. Remember that the contentType is complementary to the target type. If you wish, you can provide a hint, which MessageConverter may or may not take into consideration.

8.1.2. Message Converters

MessageConverters define two methods:

Object fromMessage(Message<?> message, Class<?> targetClass);

Message<?> toMessage(Object payload, @Nullable MessageHeaders headers);

It is important to understand the contract of these methods and their usage, specifically in the context of Spring Cloud Stream.

The fromMessage method converts an incoming Message to an argument type. The payload of the Message could be any type, and it is up to the actual implementation of the MessageConverter to support multiple types. For example, some JSON converter may support the payload type as byte[], String, and others. This is important when the application contains an internal pipeline (that is, input → handler1 → handler2 →. . . → output) and the output of the upstream handler results in a Message which may not be in the initial wire format.

However, the toMessage method has a more strict contract and must always convert Message to the wire format: byte[].

So, for all intents and purposes (and especially when implementing your own converter) you regard the two methods as having the following signatures:

Object fromMessage(Message<?> message, Class<?> targetClass);

Message<byte[]> toMessage(Object payload, @Nullable MessageHeaders headers);

8.2. Provided MessageConverters

As mentioned earlier, the framework already provides a stack of MessageConverters to handle most common use cases. The following list describes the provided MessageConverters, in order of precedence (the first MessageConverter that works is used):

  1. ApplicationJsonMessageMarshallingConverter: Variation of the org.springframework.messaging.converter.MappingJackson2MessageConverter. Supports conversion of the payload of the Message to/from POJO for cases when contentType is application/json (DEFAULT).

  2. TupleJsonMessageConverter: DEPRECATED Supports conversion of the payload of the Message to/from org.springframework.tuple.Tuple.

  3. ByteArrayMessageConverter: Supports conversion of the payload of the Message from byte[] to byte[] for cases when contentType is application/octet-stream. It is essentially a pass through and exists primarily for backward compatibility.

  4. ObjectStringMessageConverter: Supports conversion of any type to a String when contentType is text/plain. It invokes Object’s toString() method or, if the payload is byte[], a new String(byte[]).

  5. JavaSerializationMessageConverter: DEPRECATED Supports conversion based on java serialization when contentType is application/x-java-serialized-object.

  6. KryoMessageConverter: DEPRECATED Supports conversion based on Kryo serialization when contentType is application/x-java-object.

  7. JsonUnmarshallingConverter: Similar to the ApplicationJsonMessageMarshallingConverter. It supports conversion of any type when contentType is application/x-java-object. It expects the actual type information to be embedded in the contentType as an attribute (for example, application/x-java-object;type=foo.bar.Cat).

When no appropriate converter is found, the framework throws an exception. When that happens, you should check your code and configuration and ensure you did not miss anything (that is, ensure that you provided a contentType by using a binding or a header). However, most likely, you found some uncommon case (such as a custom contentType perhaps) and the current stack of provided MessageConverters does not know how to convert. If that is the case, you can add custom MessageConverter. See User-defined Message Converters.

8.3. User-defined Message Converters

Spring Cloud Stream exposes a mechanism to define and register additional MessageConverters. To use it, implement org.springframework.messaging.converter.MessageConverter, configure it as a @Bean, and annotate it with @StreamMessageConverter. It is then apended to the existing stack of `MessageConverter`s.

It is important to understand that custom MessageConverter implementations are added to the head of the existing stack. Consequently, custom MessageConverter implementations take precedence over the existing ones, which lets you override as well as add to the existing converters.

The following example shows how to create a message converter bean to support a new content type called application/bar:

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
@SpringBootApplication
public static class SinkApplication {

    ...

    @Bean
    @StreamMessageConverter
    public MessageConverter customMessageConverter() {
        return new MyCustomMessageConverter();
    }
}

public class MyCustomMessageConverter extends AbstractMessageConverter {

    public MyCustomMessageConverter() {
        super(new MimeType("application", "bar"));
    }

    @Override
    protected boolean supports(Class<?> clazz) {
        return (Bar.class.equals(clazz));
    }

    @Override
    protected Object convertFromInternal(Message<?> message, Class<?> targetClass, Object conversionHint) {
        Object payload = message.getPayload();
        return (payload instanceof Bar ? payload : new Bar((byte[]) payload));
    }
}

Spring Cloud Stream also provides support for Avro-based converters and schema evolution. See “Schema Evolution Support” for details.

9. Schema Evolution Support

Spring Cloud Stream provides support for schema evolution so that the data can be evolved over time and still work with older or newer producers and consumers and vice versa. Most serialization models, especially the ones that aim for portability across different platforms and languages, rely on a schema that describes how the data is serialized in the binary payload. In order to serialize the data and then to interpret it, both the sending and receiving sides must have access to a schema that describes the binary format. In certain cases, the schema can be inferred from the payload type on serialization or from the target type on deserialization. However, many applications benefit from having access to an explicit schema that describes the binary data format. A schema registry lets you store schema information in a textual format (typically JSON) and makes that information accessible to various applications that need it to receive and send data in binary format. A schema is referenceable as a tuple consisting of:

  • A subject that is the logical name of the schema

  • The schema version

  • The schema format, which describes the binary format of the data

This following sections goes through the details of various components involved in schema evolution process.

9.1. Schema Registry Client

The client-side abstraction for interacting with schema registry servers is the SchemaRegistryClient interface, which has the following structure:

public interface SchemaRegistryClient {

    SchemaRegistrationResponse register(String subject, String format, String schema);

    String fetch(SchemaReference schemaReference);

    String fetch(Integer id);

}

Spring Cloud Stream provides out-of-the-box implementations for interacting with its own schema server and for interacting with the Confluent Schema Registry.

A client for the Spring Cloud Stream schema registry can be configured by using the @EnableSchemaRegistryClient, as follows:

  @EnableBinding(Sink.class)
  @SpringBootApplication
  @EnableSchemaRegistryClient
  public static class AvroSinkApplication {
    ...
  }
The default converter is optimized to cache not only the schemas from the remote server but also the parse() and toString() methods, which are quite expensive. Because of this, it uses a DefaultSchemaRegistryClient that does not cache responses. If you intend to change the default behavior, you can use the client directly on your code and override it to the desired outcome. To do so, you have to add the property spring.cloud.stream.schemaRegistryClient.cached=true to your application properties.

9.1.1. Schema Registry Client Properties

The Schema Registry Client supports the following properties:

spring.cloud.stream.schemaRegistryClient.endpoint

The location of the schema-server. When setting this, use a full URL, including protocol (http or https) , port, and context path.

Default

localhost:8990/

spring.cloud.stream.schemaRegistryClient.cached

Whether the client should cache schema server responses. Normally set to false, as the caching happens in the message converter. Clients using the schema registry client should set this to true.

Default

true

9.2. Avro Schema Registry Client Message Converters

For applications that have a SchemaRegistryClient bean registered with the application context, Spring Cloud Stream auto configures an Apache Avro message converter for schema management. This eases schema evolution, as applications that receive messages can get easy access to a writer schema that can be reconciled with their own reader schema.

For outbound messages, if the content type of the channel is set to application/*+avro, the MessageConverter is activated, as shown in the following example:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.contentType=application/*+avro

During the outbound conversion, the message converter tries to infer the schema of each outbound messages (based on its type) and register it to a subject (based on the payload type) by using the SchemaRegistryClient. If an identical schema is already found, then a reference to it is retrieved. If not, the schema is registered, and a new version number is provided. The message is sent with a contentType header by using the following scheme: application/[prefix].[subject].v[version]+avro, where prefix is configurable and subject is deduced from the payload type.

For example, a message of the type User might be sent as a binary payload with a content type of application/vnd.user.v2+avro, where user is the subject and 2 is the version number.

When receiving messages, the converter infers the schema reference from the header of the incoming message and tries to retrieve it. The schema is used as the writer schema in the deserialization process.

9.2.1. Avro Schema Registry Message Converter Properties

If you have enabled Avro based schema registry client by setting spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.contentType=application/*+avro, you can customize the behavior of the registration by setting the following properties.

spring.cloud.stream.schema.avro.dynamicSchemaGenerationEnabled

Enable if you want the converter to use reflection to infer a Schema from a POJO.

Default: false

spring.cloud.stream.schema.avro.readerSchema

Avro compares schema versions by looking at a writer schema (origin payload) and a reader schema (your application payload). See the Avro documentation for more information. If set, this overrides any lookups at the schema server and uses the local schema as the reader schema. Default: null

spring.cloud.stream.schema.avro.schemaLocations

Registers any .avsc files listed in this property with the Schema Server.

Default: empty

spring.cloud.stream.schema.avro.prefix

The prefix to be used on the Content-Type header.

Default: vnd

9.3. Apache Avro Message Converters

Spring Cloud Stream provides support for schema-based message converters through its spring-cloud-stream-schema module. Currently, the only serialization format supported out of the box for schema-based message converters is Apache Avro, with more formats to be added in future versions.

The spring-cloud-stream-schema module contains two types of message converters that can be used for Apache Avro serialization:

  • Converters that use the class information of the serialized or deserialized objects or a schema with a location known at startup.

  • Converters that use a schema registry. They locate the schemas at runtime and dynamically register new schemas as domain objects evolve.

9.4. Converters with Schema Support

The AvroSchemaMessageConverter supports serializing and deserializing messages either by using a predefined schema or by using the schema information available in the class (either reflectively or contained in the SpecificRecord). If you provide a custom converter, then the default AvroSchemaMessageConverter bean is not created. The following example shows a custom converter:

To use custom converters, you can simply add it to the application context, optionally specifying one or more MimeTypes with which to associate it. The default MimeType is application/avro.

If the target type of the conversion is a GenericRecord, a schema must be set.

The following example shows how to configure a converter in a sink application by registering the Apache Avro MessageConverter without a predefined schema. In this example, note that the mime type value is avro/bytes, not the default application/avro.

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
@SpringBootApplication
public static class SinkApplication {

  ...

  @Bean
  public MessageConverter userMessageConverter() {
      return new AvroSchemaMessageConverter(MimeType.valueOf("avro/bytes"));
  }
}

Conversely, the following application registers a converter with a predefined schema (found on the classpath):

@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
@SpringBootApplication
public static class SinkApplication {

  ...

  @Bean
  public MessageConverter userMessageConverter() {
      AvroSchemaMessageConverter converter = new AvroSchemaMessageConverter(MimeType.valueOf("avro/bytes"));
      converter.setSchemaLocation(new ClassPathResource("schemas/User.avro"));
      return converter;
  }
}

9.5. Schema Registry Server

Spring Cloud Stream provides a schema registry server implementation. To use it, you can add the spring-cloud-stream-schema-server artifact to your project and use the @EnableSchemaRegistryServer annotation, which adds the schema registry server REST controller to your application. This annotation is intended to be used with Spring Boot web applications, and the listening port of the server is controlled by the server.port property. The spring.cloud.stream.schema.server.path property can be used to control the root path of the schema server (especially when it is embedded in other applications). The spring.cloud.stream.schema.server.allowSchemaDeletion boolean property enables the deletion of a schema. By default, this is disabled.

The schema registry server uses a relational database to store the schemas. By default, it uses an embedded database. You can customize the schema storage by using the Spring Boot SQL database and JDBC configuration options.

The following example shows a Spring Boot application that enables the schema registry:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableSchemaRegistryServer
public class SchemaRegistryServerApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SchemaRegistryServerApplication.class, args);
    }
}

9.5.1. Schema Registry Server API

The Schema Registry Server API consists of the following operations:

Registering a New Schema

To register a new schema, send a POST request to the / endpoint.

The / accepts a JSON payload with the following fields:

  • subject: The schema subject

  • format: The schema format

  • definition: The schema definition

Its response is a schema object in JSON, with the following fields:

  • id: The schema ID

  • subject: The schema subject

  • format: The schema format

  • version: The schema version

  • definition: The schema definition

Retrieving an Existing Schema by Subject, Format, and Version

To retrieve an existing schema by subject, format, and version, send GET request to the /{subject}/{format}/{version} endpoint.

Its response is a schema object in JSON, with the following fields:

  • id: The schema ID

  • subject: The schema subject

  • format: The schema format

  • version: The schema version

  • definition: The schema definition

Retrieving an Existing Schema by Subject and Format

To retrieve an existing schema by subject and format, send a GET request to the /subject/format endpoint.

Its response is a list of schemas with each schema object in JSON, with the following fields:

  • id: The schema ID

  • subject: The schema subject

  • format: The schema format

  • version: The schema version

  • definition: The schema definition

Retrieving an Existing Schema by ID

To retrieve a schema by its ID, send a GET request to the /schemas/{id} endpoint.

Its response is a schema object in JSON, with the following fields:

  • id: The schema ID

  • subject: The schema subject

  • format: The schema format

  • version: The schema version

  • definition: The schema definition

Deleting a Schema by Subject, Format, and Version

To delete a schema identified by its subject, format, and version, send a DELETE request to the /{subject}/{format}/{version} endpoint.

Deleting a Schema by ID

To delete a schema by its ID, send a DELETE request to the /schemas/{id} endpoint.

Deleting a Schema by Subject

DELETE /{subject}

Delete existing schemas by their subject.

This note applies to users of Spring Cloud Stream 1.1.0.RELEASE only. Spring Cloud Stream 1.1.0.RELEASE used the table name, schema, for storing Schema objects. Schema is a keyword in a number of database implementations. To avoid any conflicts in the future, starting with 1.1.1.RELEASE, we have opted for the name SCHEMA_REPOSITORY for the storage table. Any Spring Cloud Stream 1.1.0.RELEASE users who upgrade should migrate their existing schemas to the new table before upgrading.

9.5.2. Using Confluent’s Schema Registry

The default configuration creates a DefaultSchemaRegistryClient bean. If you want to use the Confluent schema registry, you need to create a bean of type ConfluentSchemaRegistryClient, which supersedes the one configured by default by the framework. The following example shows how to create such a bean:

@Bean
public SchemaRegistryClient schemaRegistryClient(@Value("${spring.cloud.stream.schemaRegistryClient.endpoint}") String endpoint){
  ConfluentSchemaRegistryClient client = new ConfluentSchemaRegistryClient();
  client.setEndpoint(endpoint);
  return client;
}
The ConfluentSchemaRegistryClient is tested against Confluent platform version 4.0.0.

9.6. Schema Registration and Resolution

To better understand how Spring Cloud Stream registers and resolves new schemas and its use of Avro schema comparison features, we provide two separate subsections:

9.6.1. Schema Registration Process (Serialization)

The first part of the registration process is extracting a schema from the payload that is being sent over a channel. Avro types such as SpecificRecord or GenericRecord already contain a schema, which can be retrieved immediately from the instance. In the case of POJOs, a schema is inferred if the spring.cloud.stream.schema.avro.dynamicSchemaGenerationEnabled property is set to true (the default).

schema resolution
Figure 7. Schema Writer Resolution Process

Ones a schema is obtained, the converter loads its metadata (version) from the remote server. First, it queries a local cache. If no result is found, it submits the data to the server, which replies with versioning information. The converter always caches the results to avoid the overhead of querying the Schema Server for every new message that needs to be serialized.

registration
Figure 8. Schema Registration Process

With the schema version information, the converter sets the contentType header of the message to carry the version information — for example: application/vnd.user.v1+avro.

9.6.2. Schema Resolution Process (Deserialization)

When reading messages that contain version information (that is, a contentType header with a scheme like the one described under “Schema Registration Process (Serialization)”), the converter queries the Schema server to fetch the writer schema of the message. Once it has found the correct schema of the incoming message, it retrieves the reader schema and, by using Avro’s schema resolution support, reads it into the reader definition (setting defaults and any missing properties).

schema reading
Figure 9. Schema Reading Resolution Process
You should understand the difference between a writer schema (the application that wrote the message) and a reader schema (the receiving application). We suggest taking a moment to read the Avro terminology and understand the process. Spring Cloud Stream always fetches the writer schema to determine how to read a message. If you want to get Avro’s schema evolution support working, you need to make sure that a readerSchema was properly set for your application.

10. Inter-Application Communication

Spring Cloud Stream enables communication between applications. Inter-application communication is a complex issue spanning several concerns, as described in the following topics:

10.1. Connecting Multiple Application Instances

While Spring Cloud Stream makes it easy for individual Spring Boot applications to connect to messaging systems, the typical scenario for Spring Cloud Stream is the creation of multi-application pipelines, where microservice applications send data to each other. You can achieve this scenario by correlating the input and output destinations of “adjacent” applications.

Suppose a design calls for the Time Source application to send data to the Log Sink application. You could use a common destination named ticktock for bindings within both applications.

Time Source (that has the channel name output) would set the following property:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.destination=ticktock

Log Sink (that has the channel name input) would set the following property:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=ticktock

10.2. Instance Index and Instance Count

When scaling up Spring Cloud Stream applications, each instance can receive information about how many other instances of the same application exist and what its own instance index is. Spring Cloud Stream does this through the spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount and spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex properties. For example, if there are three instances of a HDFS sink application, all three instances have spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount set to 3, and the individual applications have spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex set to 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

When Spring Cloud Stream applications are deployed through Spring Cloud Data Flow, these properties are configured automatically; when Spring Cloud Stream applications are launched independently, these properties must be set correctly. By default, spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount is 1, and spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex is 0.

In a scaled-up scenario, correct configuration of these two properties is important for addressing partitioning behavior (see below) in general, and the two properties are always required by certain binders (for example, the Kafka binder) in order to ensure that data are split correctly across multiple consumer instances.

10.3. Partitioning

Partitioning in Spring Cloud Stream consists of two tasks:

10.3.1. Configuring Output Bindings for Partitioning

You can configure an output binding to send partitioned data by setting one and only one of its partitionKeyExpression or partitionKeyExtractorName properties, as well as its partitionCount property.

For example, the following is a valid and typical configuration:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionKeyExpression=payload.id
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionCount=5

Based on that example configuration, data is sent to the target partition by using the following logic.

A partition key’s value is calculated for each message sent to a partitioned output channel based on the partitionKeyExpression. The partitionKeyExpression is a SpEL expression that is evaluated against the outbound message for extracting the partitioning key.

If a SpEL expression is not sufficient for your needs, you can instead calculate the partition key value by providing an implementation of org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.PartitionKeyExtractorStrategy and configuring it as a bean (by using the @Bean annotation). If you have more then one bean of type org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.PartitionKeyExtractorStrategy available in the Application Context, you can further filter it by specifying its name with the partitionKeyExtractorName property, as shown in the following example:

--spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionKeyExtractorName=customPartitionKeyExtractor
--spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionCount=5
. . .
@Bean
public CustomPartitionKeyExtractorClass customPartitionKeyExtractor() {
    return new CustomPartitionKeyExtractorClass();
}
In previous versions of Spring Cloud Stream, you could specify the implementation of org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.PartitionKeyExtractorStrategy by setting the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionKeyExtractorClass property. Since version 2.0, this property is deprecated, and support for it will be removed in a future version.

Once the message key is calculated, the partition selection process determines the target partition as a value between 0 and partitionCount - 1. The default calculation, applicable in most scenarios, is based on the following formula: key.hashCode() % partitionCount. This can be customized on the binding, either by setting a SpEL expression to be evaluated against the 'key' (through the partitionSelectorExpression property) or by configuring an implementation of org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.PartitionSelectorStrategy as a bean (by using the @Bean annotation). Similar to the PartitionKeyExtractorStrategy, you can further filter it by using the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionSelectorName property when more than one bean of this type is available in the Application Context, as shown in the following example:

--spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionSelectorName=customPartitionSelector
. . .
@Bean
public CustomPartitionSelectorClass customPartitionSelector() {
    return new CustomPartitionSelectorClass();
}
In previous versions of Spring Cloud Stream you could specify the implementation of org.springframework.cloud.stream.binder.PartitionSelectorStrategy by setting the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitionSelectorClass property. Since version 2.0, this property is deprecated and support for it will be removed in a future version.

10.3.2. Configuring Input Bindings for Partitioning

An input binding (with the channel name input) is configured to receive partitioned data by setting its partitioned property, as well as the instanceIndex and instanceCount properties on the application itself, as shown in the following example:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.consumer.partitioned=true
spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex=3
spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount=5

The instanceCount value represents the total number of application instances between which the data should be partitioned. The instanceIndex must be a unique value across the multiple instances, with a value between 0 and instanceCount - 1. The instance index helps each application instance to identify the unique partition(s) from which it receives data. It is required by binders using technology that does not support partitioning natively. For example, with RabbitMQ, there is a queue for each partition, with the queue name containing the instance index. With Kafka, if autoRebalanceEnabled is true (default), Kafka takes care of distributing partitions across instances, and these properties are not required. If autoRebalanceEnabled is set to false, the instanceCount and instanceIndex are used by the binder to determine which partition(s) the instance subscribes to (you must have at least as many partitions as there are instances). The binder allocates the partitions instead of Kafka. This might be useful if you want messages for a particular partition to always go to the same instance. When a binder configuration requires them, it is important to set both values correctly in order to ensure that all of the data is consumed and that the application instances receive mutually exclusive datasets.

While a scenario in which using multiple instances for partitioned data processing may be complex to set up in a standalone case, Spring Cloud Dataflow can simplify the process significantly by populating both the input and output values correctly and by letting you rely on the runtime infrastructure to provide information about the instance index and instance count.

11. Testing

Spring Cloud Stream provides support for testing your microservice applications without connecting to a messaging system. You can do that by using the TestSupportBinder provided by the spring-cloud-stream-test-support library, which can be added as a test dependency to the application, as shown in the following example:

   <dependency>
       <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
       <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-test-support</artifactId>
       <scope>test</scope>
   </dependency>
The TestSupportBinder uses the Spring Boot autoconfiguration mechanism to supersede the other binders found on the classpath. Therefore, when adding a binder as a dependency, you must make sure that the test scope is being used.

The TestSupportBinder lets you interact with the bound channels and inspect any messages sent and received by the application.

For outbound message channels, the TestSupportBinder registers a single subscriber and retains the messages emitted by the application in a MessageCollector. They can be retrieved during tests and have assertions made against them.

You can also send messages to inbound message channels so that the consumer application can consume the messages. The following example shows how to test both input and output channels on a processor:

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest(webEnvironment= SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
public class ExampleTest {

  @Autowired
  private Processor processor;

  @Autowired
  private MessageCollector messageCollector;

  @Test
  @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
  public void testWiring() {
    Message<String> message = new GenericMessage<>("hello");
    processor.input().send(message);
    Message<String> received = (Message<String>) messageCollector.forChannel(processor.output()).poll();
    assertThat(received.getPayload(), equalTo("hello world"));
  }


  @SpringBootApplication
  @EnableBinding(Processor.class)
  public static class MyProcessor {

    @Autowired
    private Processor channels;

    @Transformer(inputChannel = Processor.INPUT, outputChannel = Processor.OUTPUT)
    public String transform(String in) {
      return in + " world";
    }
  }
}

In the preceding example, we create an application that has an input channel and an output channel, both bound through the Processor interface. The bound interface is injected into the test so that we can have access to both channels. We send a message on the input channel, and we use the MessageCollector provided by Spring Cloud Stream’s test support to capture that the message has been sent to the output channel as a result. Once we have received the message, we can validate that the component functions correctly.

11.1. Disabling the Test Binder Autoconfiguration

The intent behind the test binder superseding all the other binders on the classpath is to make it easy to test your applications without making changes to your production dependencies. In some cases (for example, integration tests) it is useful to use the actual production binders instead, and that requires disabling the test binder autoconfiguration. To do so, you can exclude the org.springframework.cloud.stream.test.binder.TestSupportBinderAutoConfiguration class by using one of the Spring Boot autoconfiguration exclusion mechanisms, as shown in the following example:

    @SpringBootApplication(exclude = TestSupportBinderAutoConfiguration.class)
    @EnableBinding(Processor.class)
    public static class MyProcessor {

        @Transformer(inputChannel = Processor.INPUT, outputChannel = Processor.OUTPUT)
        public String transform(String in) {
            return in + " world";
        }
    }

When autoconfiguration is disabled, the test binder is available on the classpath, and its defaultCandidate property is set to false so that it does not interfere with the regular user configuration. It can be referenced under the name, test, as shown in the following example:

spring.cloud.stream.defaultBinder=test

12. Health Indicator

Spring Cloud Stream provides a health indicator for binders. It is registered under the name binders and can be enabled or disabled by setting the management.health.binders.enabled property.

By default management.health.binders.enabled is set to false. Setting management.health.binders.enabled to true enables the health indicator, allowing you to access the /health endpoint to retrieve the binder health indicators.

Health indicators are binder-specific and certain binder implementations may not necessarily provide a health indicator.

13. Metrics Emitter

Spring Boot Actuator provides dependency management and auto-configuration for Micrometer, an application metrics facade that supports numerous monitoring systems.

Spring Cloud Stream provides support for emitting any available micrometer-based metrics to a binding destination, allowing for periodic collection of metric data from stream applications without relying on polling individual endpoints.

Metrics Emitter is activated by defining the spring.cloud.stream.bindings.applicationMetrics.destination property, which specifies the name of the binding destination used by the current binder to publish metric messages.

For example:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.applicationMetrics.destination=myMetricDestination

The preceding example instructs the binder to bind to myMetricDestination (that is, Rabbit exchange, Kafka topic, and others).

The following properties can be used for customizing the emission of metrics:

spring.cloud.stream.metrics.key

The name of the metric being emitted. Should be a unique value per application.

Default: ${spring.application.name:${vcap.application.name:${spring.config.name:application}}}

spring.cloud.stream.metrics.properties

Allows white listing application properties that are added to the metrics payload

Default: null.

spring.cloud.stream.metrics.meter-filter

Pattern to control the 'meters' one wants to capture. For example, specifying spring.integration.* captures metric information for meters whose name starts with spring.integration.

Default: all 'meters' are captured.

spring.cloud.stream.metrics.schedule-interval

Interval to control the rate of publishing metric data.

Default: 1 min

Consider the following:

java -jar time-source.jar \
    --spring.cloud.stream.bindings.applicationMetrics.destination=someMetrics \
    --spring.cloud.stream.metrics.properties=spring.application** \
    --spring.cloud.stream.metrics.meter-filter=spring.integration.*

The following example shows the payload of the data published to the binding destination as a result of the preceding command:

{
	"name": "application",
	"createdTime": "2018-03-23T14:48:12.700Z",
	"properties": {
	},
	"metrics": [
		{
			"id": {
				"name": "spring.integration.send",
				"tags": [
					{
						"key": "exception",
						"value": "none"
					},
					{
						"key": "name",
						"value": "input"
					},
					{
						"key": "result",
						"value": "success"
					},
					{
						"key": "type",
						"value": "channel"
					}
				],
				"type": "TIMER",
				"description": "Send processing time",
				"baseUnit": "milliseconds"
			},
			"timestamp": "2018-03-23T14:48:12.697Z",
			"sum": 130.340546,
			"count": 6,
			"mean": 21.72342433333333,
			"upper": 116.176299,
			"total": 130.340546
		}
	]
}
Given that the format of the Metric message has slightly changed after migrating to Micrometer, the published message will also have a STREAM_CLOUD_STREAM_VERSION header set to 2.x to help distinguish between Metric messages from the older versions of the Spring Cloud Stream.

14. Samples

For Spring Cloud Stream samples, see the spring-cloud-stream-samples repository on GitHub.

14.1. Deploying Stream Applications on CloudFoundry

On CloudFoundry, services are usually exposed through a special environment variable called VCAP_SERVICES.

When configuring your binder connections, you can use the values from an environment variable as explained on the dataflow Cloud Foundry Server docs.

Binder Implementations

15. Apache Kafka Binder

15.1. Usage

To use Apache Kafka binder, you need to add spring-cloud-stream-binder-kafka as a dependency to your Spring Cloud Stream application, as shown in the following example for Maven:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-kafka</artifactId>
</dependency>

Alternatively, you can also use the Spring Cloud Stream Kafka Starter, as shown inn the following example for Maven:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-stream-kafka</artifactId>
</dependency>

15.2. Apache Kafka Binder Overview

The following image shows a simplified diagram of how the Apache Kafka binder operates:

kafka binder
Figure 10. Kafka Binder

The Apache Kafka Binder implementation maps each destination to an Apache Kafka topic. The consumer group maps directly to the same Apache Kafka concept. Partitioning also maps directly to Apache Kafka partitions as well.

The binder currently uses the Apache Kafka kafka-clients 1.0.0 jar and is designed to be used with a broker of at least that version. This client can communicate with older brokers (see the Kafka documentation), but certain features may not be available. For example, with versions earlier than 0.11.x.x, native headers are not supported. Also, 0.11.x.x does not support the autoAddPartitions property.

15.3. Configuration Options

This section contains the configuration options used by the Apache Kafka binder.

For common configuration options and properties pertaining to binder, see the core documentation.

Kafka Binder Properties
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.brokers

A list of brokers to which the Kafka binder connects.

Default: localhost.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.defaultBrokerPort

brokers allows hosts specified with or without port information (for example, host1,host2:port2). This sets the default port when no port is configured in the broker list.

Default: 9092.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration

Key/Value map of client properties (both producers and consumer) passed to all clients created by the binder. Due to the fact that these properties are used by both producers and consumers, usage should be restricted to common properties — for example, security settings.

Default: Empty map.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.headers

The list of custom headers that are transported by the binder. Only required when communicating with older applications (⇐ 1.3.x) with a kafka-clients version < 0.11.0.0. Newer versions support headers natively.

Default: empty.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.healthTimeout

The time to wait to get partition information, in seconds. Health reports as down if this timer expires.

Default: 10.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.requiredAcks

The number of required acks on the broker. See the Kafka documentation for the producer acks property.

Default: 1.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.minPartitionCount

Effective only if autoCreateTopics or autoAddPartitions is set. The global minimum number of partitions that the binder configures on topics on which it produces or consumes data. It can be superseded by the partitionCount setting of the producer or by the value of instanceCount * concurrency settings of the producer (if either is larger).

Default: 1.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.replicationFactor

The replication factor of auto-created topics if autoCreateTopics is active. Can be overridden on each binding.

Default: 1.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.autoCreateTopics

If set to true, the binder creates new topics automatically. If set to false, the binder relies on the topics being already configured. In the latter case, if the topics do not exist, the binder fails to start.

This setting is independent of the auto.topic.create.enable setting of the broker and does not influence it. If the server is set to auto-create topics, they may be created as part of the metadata retrieval request, with default broker settings.

Default: true.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.autoAddPartitions

If set to true, the binder creates new partitions if required. If set to false, the binder relies on the partition size of the topic being already configured. If the partition count of the target topic is smaller than the expected value, the binder fails to start.

Default: false.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.transaction.transactionIdPrefix

Enables transactions in the binder. See transaction.id in the Kafka documentation and Transactions in the spring-kafka documentation. When transactions are enabled, individual producer properties are ignored and all producers use the spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.transaction.producer.* properties.

Default null (no transactions)

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.transaction.producer.*

Global producer properties for producers in a transactional binder. See spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.transaction.transactionIdPrefix and Kafka Producer Properties and the general producer properties supported by all binders.

Default: See individual producer properties.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.headerMapperBeanName

The bean name of a KafkaHeaderMapper used for mapping spring-messaging headers to and from Kafka headers. Use this, for example, if you wish to customize the trusted packages in a DefaultKafkaHeaderMapper that uses JSON deserialization for the headers.

Default: none.

Kafka Consumer Properties

The following properties are available for Kafka consumers only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.bindings.<channelName>.consumer..

admin.configuration

A Map of Kafka topic properties used when provisioning topics — for example, spring.cloud.stream.kafka.bindings.input.consumer.admin.configuration.message.format.version=0.9.0.0

Default: none.

admin.replicas-assignment

A Map<Integer, List<Integer>> of replica assignments, with the key being the partition and the value being the assignments. Used when provisioning new topics. See the NewTopic Javadocs in the kafka-clients jar.

Default: none.

admin.replication-factor

The replication factor to use when provisioning topics. Overrides the binder-wide setting. Ignored if replicas-assignments is present.

Default: none (the binder-wide default of 1 is used).

autoRebalanceEnabled

When true, topic partitions is automatically rebalanced between the members of a consumer group. When false, each consumer is assigned a fixed set of partitions based on spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount and spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex. This requires both the spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount and spring.cloud.stream.instanceIndex properties to be set appropriately on each launched instance. The value of the spring.cloud.stream.instanceCount property must typically be greater than 1 in this case.

Default: true.

ackEachRecord

When autoCommitOffset is true, this setting dictates whether to commit the offset after each record is processed. By default, offsets are committed after all records in the batch of records returned by consumer.poll() have been processed. The number of records returned by a poll can be controlled with the max.poll.records Kafka property, which is set through the consumer configuration property. Setting this to true may cause a degradation in performance, but doing so reduces the likelihood of redelivered records when a failure occurs. Also, see the binder requiredAcks property, which also affects the performance of committing offsets.

Default: false.

autoCommitOffset

Whether to autocommit offsets when a message has been processed. If set to false, a header with the key kafka_acknowledgment of the type org.springframework.kafka.support.Acknowledgment header is present in the inbound message. Applications may use this header for acknowledging messages. See the examples section for details. When this property is set to false, Kafka binder sets the ack mode to org.springframework.kafka.listener.AbstractMessageListenerContainer.AckMode.MANUAL and the application is responsible for acknowledging records. Also see ackEachRecord.

Default: true.

autoCommitOnError

Effective only if autoCommitOffset is set to true. If set to false, it suppresses auto-commits for messages that result in errors and commits only for successful messages. It allows a stream to automatically replay from the last successfully processed message, in case of persistent failures. If set to true, it always auto-commits (if auto-commit is enabled). If not set (the default), it effectively has the same value as enableDlq, auto-committing erroneous messages if they are sent to a DLQ and not committing them otherwise.

Default: not set.

resetOffsets

Whether to reset offsets on the consumer to the value provided by startOffset.

Default: false.

startOffset

The starting offset for new groups. Allowed values: earliest and latest. If the consumer group is set explicitly for the consumer 'binding' (through spring.cloud.stream.bindings.<channelName>.group), 'startOffset' is set to earliest. Otherwise, it is set to latest for the anonymous consumer group. Also see resetOffsets (earlier in this list).

Default: null (equivalent to earliest).

enableDlq

When set to true, it enables DLQ behavior for the consumer. By default, messages that result in errors are forwarded to a topic named error.<destination>.<group>. The DLQ topic name can be configurable by setting the dlqName property. This provides an alternative option to the more common Kafka replay scenario for the case when the number of errors is relatively small and replaying the entire original topic may be too cumbersome. See Dead-Letter Topic Processing processing for more information. Starting with version 2.0, messages sent to the DLQ topic are enhanced with the following headers: x-original-topic, x-exception-message, and x-exception-stacktrace as byte[].

Default: false.

configuration

Map with a key/value pair containing generic Kafka consumer properties.

Default: Empty map.

dlqName

The name of the DLQ topic to receive the error messages.

Default: null (If not specified, messages that result in errors are forwarded to a topic named error.<destination>.<group>).

dlqProducerProperties

Using this, DLQ-specific producer properties can be set. All the properties available through kafka producer properties can be set through this property.

Default: Default Kafka producer properties.

standardHeaders

Indicates which standard headers are populated by the inbound channel adapter. Allowed values: none, id, timestamp, or both. Useful if using native deserialization and the first component to receive a message needs an id (such as an aggregator that is configured to use a JDBC message store).

Default: none

converterBeanName

The name of a bean that implements RecordMessageConverter. Used in the inbound channel adapter to replace the default MessagingMessageConverter.

Default: null

idleEventInterval

The interval, in milliseconds, between events indicating that no messages have recently been received. Use an ApplicationListener<ListenerContainerIdleEvent> to receive these events. See Example: Pausing and Resuming the Consumer for a usage example.

Default: 30000

Kafka Producer Properties

The following properties are available for Kafka producers only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.bindings.<channelName>.producer..

admin.configuration

A Map of Kafka topic properties used when provisioning new topics — for example, spring.cloud.stream.kafka.bindings.input.consumer.admin.configuration.message.format.version=0.9.0.0

Default: none.

admin.replicas-assignment

A Map<Integer, List<Integer>> of replica assignments, with the key being the partition and the value being the assignments. Used when provisioning new topics. See NewTopic javadocs in the kafka-clients jar.

Default: none.

admin.replication-factor

The replication factor to use when provisioning new topics. Overrides the binder-wide setting. Ignored if replicas-assignments is present.

Default: none (the binder-wide default of 1 is used).

bufferSize

Upper limit, in bytes, of how much data the Kafka producer attempts to batch before sending.

Default: 16384.

sync

Whether the producer is synchronous.

Default: false.

batchTimeout

How long the producer waits to allow more messages to accumulate in the same batch before sending the messages. (Normally, the producer does not wait at all and simply sends all the messages that accumulated while the previous send was in progress.) A non-zero value may increase throughput at the expense of latency.

Default: 0.

messageKeyExpression

A SpEL expression evaluated against the outgoing message used to populate the key of the produced Kafka message — for example, headers['myKey']. The payload cannot be used because, by the time this expression is evaluated, the payload is already in the form of a byte[].

Default: none.

headerPatterns

A comma-delimited list of simple patterns to match Spring messaging headers to be mapped to the Kafka Headers in the ProducerRecord. Patterns can begin or end with the wildcard character (asterisk). Patterns can be negated by prefixing with !. Matching stops after the first match (positive or negative). For example !ask,as* will pass ash but not ask. id and timestamp are never mapped.

Default: * (all headers - except the id and timestamp)

configuration

Map with a key/value pair containing generic Kafka producer properties.

Default: Empty map.

The Kafka binder uses the partitionCount setting of the producer as a hint to create a topic with the given partition count (in conjunction with the minPartitionCount, the maximum of the two being the value being used). Exercise caution when configuring both minPartitionCount for a binder and partitionCount for an application, as the larger value is used. If a topic already exists with a smaller partition count and autoAddPartitions is disabled (the default), the binder fails to start. If a topic already exists with a smaller partition count and autoAddPartitions is enabled, new partitions are added. If a topic already exists with a larger number of partitions than the maximum of (minPartitionCount or partitionCount), the existing partition count is used.
Usage examples

In this section, we show the use of the preceding properties for specific scenarios.

Example: Setting autoCommitOffset to false and Relying on Manual Acking

This example illustrates how one may manually acknowledge offsets in a consumer application.

This example requires that spring.cloud.stream.kafka.bindings.input.consumer.autoCommitOffset be set to false. Use the corresponding input channel name for your example.

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class ManuallyAcknowdledgingConsumer {

 public static void main(String[] args) {
     SpringApplication.run(ManuallyAcknowdledgingConsumer.class, args);
 }

 @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
 public void process(Message<?> message) {
     Acknowledgment acknowledgment = message.getHeaders().get(KafkaHeaders.ACKNOWLEDGMENT, Acknowledgment.class);
     if (acknowledgment != null) {
         System.out.println("Acknowledgment provided");
         acknowledgment.acknowledge();
     }
 }
}
Example: Security Configuration

Apache Kafka 0.9 supports secure connections between client and brokers. To take advantage of this feature, follow the guidelines in the Apache Kafka Documentation as well as the Kafka 0.9 security guidelines from the Confluent documentation. Use the spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration option to set security properties for all clients created by the binder.

For example, to set security.protocol to SASL_SSL, set the following property:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration.security.protocol=SASL_SSL

All the other security properties can be set in a similar manner.

When using Kerberos, follow the instructions in the reference documentation for creating and referencing the JAAS configuration.

Spring Cloud Stream supports passing JAAS configuration information to the application by using a JAAS configuration file and using Spring Boot properties.

Using JAAS Configuration Files

The JAAS and (optionally) krb5 file locations can be set for Spring Cloud Stream applications by using system properties. The following example shows how to launch a Spring Cloud Stream application with SASL and Kerberos by using a JAAS configuration file:

 java -Djava.security.auth.login.config=/path.to/kafka_client_jaas.conf -jar log.jar \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.brokers=secure.server:9092 \
   --spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=stream.ticktock \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration.security.protocol=SASL_PLAINTEXT
Using Spring Boot Properties

As an alternative to having a JAAS configuration file, Spring Cloud Stream provides a mechanism for setting up the JAAS configuration for Spring Cloud Stream applications by using Spring Boot properties.

The following properties can be used to configure the login context of the Kafka client:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.loginModule

The login module name. Not necessary to be set in normal cases.

Default: com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.controlFlag

The control flag of the login module.

Default: required.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.options

Map with a key/value pair containing the login module options.

Default: Empty map.

The following example shows how to launch a Spring Cloud Stream application with SASL and Kerberos by using Spring Boot configuration properties:

 java --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.brokers=secure.server:9092 \
   --spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=stream.ticktock \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.autoCreateTopics=false \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration.security.protocol=SASL_PLAINTEXT \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.options.useKeyTab=true \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.options.storeKey=true \
   --spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.jaas.options.keyTab=/etc/security/keytabs/kafka_client.keytab \
   --spring.[email protected]EXAMPLE.COM

The preceding example represents the equivalent of the following JAAS file:

KafkaClient {
    com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule required
    useKeyTab=true
    storeKey=true
    keyTab="/etc/security/keytabs/kafka_client.keytab"
    principal="[email protected]";
};

If the topics required already exist on the broker or will be created by an administrator, autocreation can be turned off and only client JAAS properties need to be sent.

Do not mix JAAS configuration files and Spring Boot properties in the same application. If the -Djava.security.auth.login.config system property is already present, Spring Cloud Stream ignores the Spring Boot properties.
Be careful when using the autoCreateTopics and autoAddPartitions with Kerberos. Usually, applications may use principals that do not have administrative rights in Kafka and Zookeeper. Consequently, relying on Spring Cloud Stream to create/modify topics may fail. In secure environments, we strongly recommend creating topics and managing ACLs administratively by using Kafka tooling.
Example: Pausing and Resuming the Consumer

If you wish to suspend consumption but not cause a partition rebalance, you can pause and resume the consumer. This is facilitated by adding the Consumer as a parameter to your @StreamListener. To resume, you need an ApplicationListener for ListenerContainerIdleEvent instances. The frequency at which events are published is controlled by the idleEventInterval property. Since the consumer is not thread-safe, you must call these methods on the calling thread.

The following simple application shows how to pause and resume:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class Application {

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
	}

	@StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
	public void in(String in, @Header(KafkaHeaders.CONSUMER) Consumer<?, ?> consumer) {
		System.out.println(in);
		consumer.pause(Collections.singleton(new TopicPartition("myTopic", 0)));
	}

	@Bean
	public ApplicationListener<ListenerContainerIdleEvent> idleListener() {
		return event -> {
			System.out.println(event);
			if (event.getConsumer().paused().size() > 0) {
				event.getConsumer().resume(event.getConsumer().paused());
			}
		};
	}

}

15.4. Error Channels

Starting with version 1.3, the binder unconditionally sends exceptions to an error channel for each consumer destination and can also be configured to send async producer send failures to an error channel. See Error Handling for more information.

The payload of the ErrorMessage for a send failure is a KafkaSendFailureException with properties:

  • failedMessage: The Spring Messaging Message<?> that failed to be sent.

  • record: The raw ProducerRecord that was created from the failedMessage

There is no automatic handling of producer exceptions (such as sending to a Dead-Letter queue). You can consume these exceptions with your own Spring Integration flow.

15.5. Kafka Metrics

Kafka binder module exposes the following metrics:

spring.cloud.stream.binder.kafka.offset: This metric indicates how many messages have not been yet consumed from a given binder’s topic by a given consumer group. The metrics provided are based on the Mircometer metrics library. The metric contains the consumer group information, topic and the actual lag in committed offset from the latest offset on the topic. This metric is particularly useful for providing auto-scaling feedback to a PaaS platform.

15.6. Dead-Letter Topic Processing

Because you cannot anticipate how users would want to dispose of dead-lettered messages, the framework does not provide any standard mechanism to handle them. If the reason for the dead-lettering is transient, you may wish to route the messages back to the original topic. However, if the problem is a permanent issue, that could cause an infinite loop. The sample Spring Boot application within this topic is an example of how to route those messages back to the original topic, but it moves them to a “parking lot” topic after three attempts. The application is another spring-cloud-stream application that reads from the dead-letter topic. It terminates when no messages are received for 5 seconds.

The examples assume the original destination is so8400out and the consumer group is so8400.

There are a couple of strategies to consider:

  • Consider running the rerouting only when the main application is not running. Otherwise, the retries for transient errors are used up very quickly.

  • Alternatively, use a two-stage approach: Use this application to route to a third topic and another to route from there back to the main topic.

The following code listings show the sample application:

application.properties
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.group=so8400replay
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=error.so8400out.so8400

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.destination=so8400out
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.producer.partitioned=true

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.parkingLot.destination=so8400in.parkingLot
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.parkingLot.producer.partitioned=true

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.configuration.auto.offset.reset=earliest

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.binder.headers=x-retries
Application
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(TwoOutputProcessor.class)
public class ReRouteDlqKApplication implements CommandLineRunner {

    private static final String X_RETRIES_HEADER = "x-retries";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(ReRouteDlqKApplication.class, args).close();
    }

    private final AtomicInteger processed = new AtomicInteger();

    @Autowired
    private MessageChannel parkingLot;

    @StreamListener(Processor.INPUT)
    @SendTo(Processor.OUTPUT)
    public Message<?> reRoute(Message<?> failed) {
        processed.incrementAndGet();
        Integer retries = failed.getHeaders().get(X_RETRIES_HEADER, Integer.class);
        if (retries == null) {
            System.out.println("First retry for " + failed);
            return MessageBuilder.fromMessage(failed)
                    .setHeader(X_RETRIES_HEADER, new Integer(1))
                    .setHeader(BinderHeaders.PARTITION_OVERRIDE,
                            failed.getHeaders().get(KafkaHeaders.RECEIVED_PARTITION_ID))
                    .build();
        }
        else if (retries.intValue() < 3) {
            System.out.println("Another retry for " + failed);
            return MessageBuilder.fromMessage(failed)
                    .setHeader(X_RETRIES_HEADER, new Integer(retries.intValue() + 1))
                    .setHeader(BinderHeaders.PARTITION_OVERRIDE,
                            failed.getHeaders().get(KafkaHeaders.RECEIVED_PARTITION_ID))
                    .build();
        }
        else {
            System.out.println("Retries exhausted for " + failed);
            parkingLot.send(MessageBuilder.fromMessage(failed)
                    .setHeader(BinderHeaders.PARTITION_OVERRIDE,
                            failed.getHeaders().get(KafkaHeaders.RECEIVED_PARTITION_ID))
                    .build());
        }
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public void run(String... args) throws Exception {
        while (true) {
            int count = this.processed.get();
            Thread.sleep(5000);
            if (count == this.processed.get()) {
                System.out.println("Idle, terminating");
                return;
            }
        }
    }

    public interface TwoOutputProcessor extends Processor {

        @Output("parkingLot")
        MessageChannel parkingLot();

    }

}

15.7. Partitioning with the Kafka Binder

Apache Kafka supports topic partitioning natively.

Sometimes it is advantageous to send data to specific partitions — for example, when you want to strictly order message processing (all messages for a particular customer should go to the same partition).

The following example shows how to configure the producer and consumer side:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Source.class)
public class KafkaPartitionProducerApplication {

    private static final Random RANDOM = new Random(System.currentTimeMillis());

    private static final String[] data = new String[] {
            "foo1", "bar1", "qux1",
            "foo2", "bar2", "qux2",
            "foo3", "bar3", "qux3",
            "foo4", "bar4", "qux4",
            };

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SpringApplicationBuilder(KafkaPartitionProducerApplication.class)
            .web(false)
            .run(args);
    }

    @InboundChannelAdapter(channel = Source.OUTPUT, poller = @Poller(fixedRate = "5000"))
    public Message<?> generate() {
        String value = data[RANDOM.nextInt(data.length)];
        System.out.println("Sending: " + value);
        return MessageBuilder.withPayload(value)
                .setHeader("partitionKey", value)
                .build();
    }

}
application.yml
spring:
  cloud:
    stream:
      bindings:
        output:
          destination: partitioned.topic
          producer:
            partitioned: true
            partition-key-expression: headers['partitionKey']
            partition-count: 12
The topic must be provisioned to have enough partitions to achieve the desired concurrency for all consumer groups. The above configuration supports up to 12 consumer instances (6 if their concurrency is 2, 4 if their concurrency is 3, and so on). It is generally best to “over-provision” the partitions to allow for future increases in consumers or concurrency.
The preceding configuration uses the default partitioning (key.hashCode() % partitionCount). This may or may not provide a suitably balanced algorithm, depending on the key values. You can override this default by using the partitionSelectorExpression or partitionSelectorClass properties.

Since partitions are natively handled by Kafka, no special configuration is needed on the consumer side. Kafka allocates partitions across the instances.

The following Spring Boot application listens to a Kafka stream and prints (to the console) the partition ID to which each message goes:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class KafkaPartitionConsumerApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SpringApplicationBuilder(KafkaPartitionConsumerApplication.class)
            .web(false)
            .run(args);
    }

    @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
    public void listen(@Payload String in, @Header(KafkaHeaders.RECEIVED_PARTITION_ID) int partition) {
        System.out.println(in + " received from partition " + partition);
    }

}
application.yml
spring:
  cloud:
    stream:
      bindings:
        input:
          destination: partitioned.topic
          group: myGroup

You can add instances as needed. Kafka rebalances the partition allocations. If the instance count (or instance count * concurrency) exceeds the number of partitions, some consumers are idle.

16. Apache Kafka Streams Binder

16.1. Usage

For using the Kafka Streams binder, you just need to add it to your Spring Cloud Stream application, using the following Maven coordinates:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-kafka-streams</artifactId>
</dependency>

16.2. Kafka Streams Binder Overview

Spring Cloud Stream’s Apache Kafka support also includes a binder implementation designed explicitly for Apache Kafka Streams binding. With this native integration, a Spring Cloud Stream "processor" application can directly use the Apache Kafka Streams APIs in the core business logic.

Kafka Streams binder implementation builds on the foundation provided by the Kafka Streams in Spring Kafka project.

As part of this native integration, the high-level Streams DSL provided by the Kafka Streams API is available for use in the business logic, too.

An early version of the Processor API support is available as well.

As noted early-on, Kafka Streams support in Spring Cloud Stream strictly only available for use in the Processor model. A model in which the messages read from an inbound topic, business processing can be applied, and the transformed messages can be written to an outbound topic. It can also be used in Processor applications with a no-outbound destination.

16.2.1. Streams DSL

This application consumes data from a Kafka topic (e.g., words), computes word count for each unique word in a 5 seconds time window, and the computed results are sent to a downstream topic (e.g., counts) for further processing.

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(KStreamProcessor.class)
public class WordCountProcessorApplication {

	@StreamListener("input")
	@SendTo("output")
	public KStream<?, WordCount> process(KStream<?, String> input) {
		return input
                .flatMapValues(value -> Arrays.asList(value.toLowerCase().split("\\W+")))
                .groupBy((key, value) -> value)
                .windowedBy(TimeWindows.of(5000))
                .count(Materialized.as("WordCounts-multi"))
                .toStream()
                .map((key, value) -> new KeyValue<>(null, new WordCount(key.key(), value, new Date(key.window().start()), new Date(key.window().end()))));
    }

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(WordCountProcessorApplication.class, args);
	}

Once built as a uber-jar (e.g., wordcount-processor.jar), you can run the above example like the following.

java -jar wordcount-processor.jar  --spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=words --spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.destination=counts

This application will consume messages from the Kafka topic words and the computed results are published to an output topic counts.

Spring Cloud Stream will ensure that the messages from both the incoming and outgoing topics are automatically bound as KStream objects. As a developer, you can exclusively focus on the business aspects of the code, i.e. writing the logic required in the processor. Setting up the Streams DSL specific configuration required by the Kafka Streams infrastructure is automatically handled by the framework.

16.3. Configuration Options

This section contains the configuration options used by the Kafka Streams binder.

For common configuration options and properties pertaining to binder, refer to the core documentation.

16.3.1. Kafka Streams Properties

The following properties are available at the binder level and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder. literal.

configuration

Map with a key/value pair containing properties pertaining to Apache Kafka Streams API. This property must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.. Following are some examples of using this property.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.key.serde=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.value.serde=org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.commit.interval.ms=1000

For more information about all the properties that may go into streams configuration, see StreamsConfig JavaDocs in Apache Kafka Streams docs.

brokers

Broker URL

Default: localhost

zkNodes

Zookeeper URL

Default: localhost

serdeError

Deserialization error handler type. Possible values are - logAndContinue, logAndFail or sendToDlq

Default: logAndFail

applicationId

Application ID for all the stream configurations in the current application context. You can override the application id for an individual StreamListener method using the group property on the binding. You have to ensure that you are using the same group name for all input bindings in the case of multiple inputs on the same methods.

Default: default

The following properties are only available for Kafka Streams producers and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.<binding name>.producer. literal.

keySerde

key serde to use

Default: none.

valueSerde

value serde to use

Default: none.

useNativeEncoding

flag to enable native encoding

Default: false.

The following properties are only available for Kafka Streams consumers and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.<binding name>.consumer. literal.

keySerde

key serde to use

Default: none.

valueSerde

value serde to use

Default: none.

materializedAs

state store to materialize when using incoming KTable types

Default: none.

useNativeDecoding

flag to enable native decoding

Default: false.

dlqName

DLQ topic name.

Default: none.

16.3.2. TimeWindow properties:

Windowing is an important concept in stream processing applications. Following properties are available to configure time-window computations.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.timeWindow.length

When this property is given, you can autowire a TimeWindows bean into the application. The value is expressed in milliseconds.

Default: none.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.timeWindow.advanceBy

Value is given in milliseconds.

Default: none.

16.4. Multiple Input Bindings

For use cases that requires multiple incoming KStream objects or a combination of KStream and KTable objects, the Kafka Streams binder provides multiple bindings support.

Let’s see it in action.

16.4.1. Multiple Input Bindings as a Sink

@EnableBinding(KStreamKTableBinding.class)
.....
.....
@StreamListener
public void process(@Input("inputStream") KStream<String, PlayEvent> playEvents,
                    @Input("inputTable") KTable<Long, Song> songTable) {
                    ....
                    ....
}

interface KStreamKTableBinding {

    @Input("inputStream")
    KStream<?, ?> inputStream();

    @Input("inputTable")
    KTable<?, ?> inputTable();
}

In the above example, the application is written as a sink, i.e. there are no output bindings and the application has to decide concerning downstream processing. When you write applications in this style, you might want to send the information downstream or store them in a state store (See below for Queryable State Stores).

In the case of incoming KTable, if you want to materialize the computations to a state store, you have to express it through the following property.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.inputTable.consumer.materializedAs: all-songs

16.4.2. Multiple Input Bindings as a Processor

@EnableBinding(KStreamKTableBinding.class)
....
....

@StreamListener
@SendTo("output")
public KStream<String, Long> process(@Input("input") KStream<String, Long> userClicksStream,
                                     @Input("inputTable") KTable<String, String> userRegionsTable) {
....
....
}

interface KStreamKTableBinding extends KafkaStreamsProcessor {

    @Input("inputX")
    KTable<?, ?> inputTable();
}

16.5. Multiple Output Bindings (aka Branching)

Kafka Streams allow outbound data to be split into multiple topics based on some predicates. The Kafka Streams binder provides support for this feature without compromising the programming model exposed through StreamListener in the end user application.

You can write the application in the usual way as demonstrated above in the word count example. However, when using the branching feature, you are required to do a few things. First, you need to make sure that your return type is KStream[] instead of a regular KStream. Second, you need to use the SendTo annotation containing the output bindings in the order (see example below). For each of these output bindings, you need to configure destination, content-type etc., complying with the standard Spring Cloud Stream expectations.

Here is an example:

@EnableBinding(KStreamProcessorWithBranches.class)
@EnableAutoConfiguration
public static class WordCountProcessorApplication {

    @Autowired
    private TimeWindows timeWindows;

    @StreamListener("input")
    @SendTo({"output1","output2","output3})
    public KStream<?, WordCount>[] process(KStream<Object, String> input) {

			Predicate<Object, WordCount> isEnglish = (k, v) -> v.word.equals("english");
			Predicate<Object, WordCount> isFrench =  (k, v) -> v.word.equals("french");
			Predicate<Object, WordCount> isSpanish = (k, v) -> v.word.equals("spanish");

			return input
					.flatMapValues(value -> Arrays.asList(value.toLowerCase().split("\\W+")))
					.groupBy((key, value) -> value)
					.windowedBy(timeWindows)
					.count(Materialized.as("WordCounts-1"))
					.toStream()
					.map((key, value) -> new KeyValue<>(null, new WordCount(key.key(), value, new Date(key.window().start()), new Date(key.window().end()))))
					.branch(isEnglish, isFrench, isSpanish);
    }

    interface KStreamProcessorWithBranches {

    		@Input("input")
    		KStream<?, ?> input();

    		@Output("output1")
    		KStream<?, ?> output1();

    		@Output("output2")
    		KStream<?, ?> output2();

    		@Output("output3")
    		KStream<?, ?> output3();
    	}
}

Properties:

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output1.contentType: application/json
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output2.contentType: application/json
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output3.contentType: application/json
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.commit.interval.ms: 1000
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration:
  default.key.serde: org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde
  default.value.serde: org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output1:
  destination: foo
  producer:
    headerMode: raw
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output2:
  destination: bar
  producer:
    headerMode: raw
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output3:
  destination: fox
  producer:
    headerMode: raw
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input:
  destination: words
  consumer:
    headerMode: raw

16.6. Message Conversion

Similar to message-channel based binder applications, the Kafka Streams binder adapts to the out-of-the-box content-type conversions without any compromise.

It is typical for Kafka Streams operations to know the type of SerDe’s used to transform the key and value correctly. Therefore, it may be more natural to rely on the SerDe facilities provided by the Apache Kafka Streams library itself at the inbound and outbound conversions rather than using the content-type conversions offered by the framework. On the other hand, you might be already familiar with the content-type conversion patterns provided by the framework, and that, you’d like to continue using for inbound and outbound conversions.

Both the options are supported in the Kafka Streams binder implementation.

Outbound serialization

If native encoding is disabled (which is the default), then the framework will convert the message using the contentType set by the user (otherwise, the default application/json will be applied). It will ignore any SerDe set on the outbound in this case for outbound serialization.

Here is the property to set the contentType on the outbound.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.contentType: application/json

Here is the property to enable native encoding.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output.nativeEncoding: true

If native encoding is enabled on the output binding (user has to enable it as above explicitly), then the framework will skip any form of automatic message conversion on the outbound. In that case, it will switch to the Serde set by the user. The valueSerde property set on the actual output binding will be used. Here is an example.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.output.producer.valueSerde: org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde

If this property is not set, then it will use the "default" SerDe: spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.value.serde.

It is worth to mention that Kafka Streams binder does not serialize the keys on outbound - it simply relies on Kafka itself. Therefore, you either have to specify the keySerde property on the binding or it will default to the application-wide common keySerde.

Binding level key serde:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.output.producer.keySerde

Common Key serde:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.key.serde

If branching is used, then you need to use multiple output bindings. For example,

interface KStreamProcessorWithBranches {

    		@Input("input")
    		KStream<?, ?> input();

    		@Output("output1")
    		KStream<?, ?> output1();

    		@Output("output2")
    		KStream<?, ?> output2();

    		@Output("output3")
    		KStream<?, ?> output3();
    	}

If nativeEncoding is set, then you can set different SerDe’s on individual output bindings as below.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.output1.producer.valueSerde=IntegerSerde
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.output2.producer.valueSerde=StringSerde
spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.output3.producer.valueSerde=JsonSerde

Then if you have SendTo like this, @SendTo({"output1", "output2", "output3"}), the KStream[] from the branches are applied with proper SerDe objects as defined above. If you are not enabling nativeEncoding, you can then set different contentType values on the output bindings as below. In that case, the framework will use the appropriate message converter to convert the messages before sending to Kafka.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output1.contentType: application/json
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output2.contentType: application/java-serialzied-object
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.output3.contentType: application/octet-stream
Inbound Deserialization

Similar rules apply to data deserialization on the inbound.

If native decoding is disabled (which is the default), then the framework will convert the message using the contentType set by the user (otherwise, the default application/json will be applied). It will ignore any SerDe set on the inbound in this case for inbound deserialization.

Here is the property to set the contentType on the inbound.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.contentType: application/json

Here is the property to enable native decoding.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.nativeDecoding: true

If native decoding is enabled on the input binding (user has to enable it as above explicitly), then the framework will skip doing any message conversion on the inbound. In that case, it will switch to the SerDe set by the user. The valueSerde property set on the actual output binding will be used. Here is an example.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.input.consumer.valueSerde: org.apache.kafka.common.serialization.Serdes$StringSerde

If this property is not set, it will use the default SerDe: spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.value.serde.

It is worth to mention that Kafka Streams binder does not deserialize the keys on inbound - it simply relies on Kafka itself. Therefore, you either have to specify the keySerde property on the binding or it will default to the application-wide common keySerde.

Binding level key serde:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.input.consumer.keySerde

Common Key serde:

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.configuration.default.key.serde

As in the case of KStream branching on the outbound, the benefit of setting value SerDe per binding is that if you have multiple input bindings (multiple KStreams object) and they all require separate value SerDe’s, then you can configure them individually. If you use the common configuration approach, then this feature won’t be applicable.

16.7. Error Handling

Apache Kafka Streams provide the capability for natively handling exceptions from deserialization errors. For details on this support, please see this Out of the box, Apache Kafka Streams provide two kinds of deserialization exception handlers - logAndContinue and logAndFail. As the name indicates, the former will log the error and continue processing the next records and the latter will log the error and fail. LogAndFail is the default deserialization exception handler.

16.7.1. Handling Deserialization Exceptions

Kafka Streams binder supports a selection of exception handlers through the following properties.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.serdeError: logAndContinue

In addition to the above two deserialization exception handlers, the binder also provides a third one for sending the erroneous records (poison pills) to a DLQ topic. Here is how you enable this DLQ exception handler.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.serdeError: sendToDlq

When the above property is set, all the deserialization error records are automatically sent to the DLQ topic.

spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.bindings.input.consumer.dlqName: foo-dlq

If this is set, then the error records are sent to the topic foo-dlq. If this is not set, then it will create a DLQ topic with the name error.<input-topic-name>.<group-name>.

A couple of things to keep in mind when using the exception handling feature in Kafka Streams binder.

  • The property spring.cloud.stream.kafka.streams.binder.serdeError is applicable for the entire application. This implies that if there are multiple StreamListener methods in the same application, this property is applied to all of them.

  • The exception handling for deserialization works consistently with native deserialization and framework provided message conversion.

16.7.2. Handling Non-Deserialization Exceptions

For general error handling in Kafka Streams binder, it is up to the end user applications to handle application level errors. As a side effect of providing a DLQ for deserialization exception handlers, Kafka Streams binder provides a way to get access to the DLQ sending bean directly from your application. Once you get access to that bean, you can programmatically send any exception records from your application to the DLQ.

It continues to remain hard to robust error handling using the high-level DSL; Kafka Streams doesn’t natively support error handling yet.

However, when you use the low-level Processor API in your application, there are options to control this behavior. See below.

@Autowired
private SendToDlqAndContinue dlqHandler;

@StreamListener("input")
@SendTo("output")
public KStream<?, WordCount> process(KStream<Object, String> input) {

    input.process(() -> new Processor() {
    			ProcessorContext context;

    			@Override
    			public void init(ProcessorContext context) {
    				this.context = context;
    			}

    			@Override
    			public void process(Object o, Object o2) {

    			    try {
    			        .....
    			        .....
    			    }
    			    catch(Exception e) {
    			        //explicitly provide the kafka topic corresponding to the input binding as the first argument.
                        //DLQ handler will correctly map to the dlq topic from the actual incoming destination.
                        dlqHandler.sendToDlq("topic-name", (byte[]) o1, (byte[]) o2, context.partition());
    			    }
    			}

    			.....
    			.....
    });
}

16.8. Interactive Queries

As part of the public Kafka Streams binder API, we expose a class called QueryableStoreRegistry. You can access this as a Spring bean in your application. An easy way to get access to this bean from your application is to "autowire" the bean in your application.

@Autowired
private QueryableStoreRegistry queryableStoreRegistry;

Once you gain access to this bean, then you can query for the particular state-store that you are interested. See below.

ReadOnlyKeyValueStore<Object, Object> keyValueStore =
						queryableStoreRegistry.getQueryableStoreType("my-store", QueryableStoreTypes.keyValueStore());

16.9. Accessing the underlying KafkaStreams object

StreamBuilderFactoryBean from spring-kafka that is responsible for constructing the KafkaStreams object can be accessed programmatically. Each StreamBuilderFactoryBean is registered as stream-builder and appended with the StreamListener method name. If your StreamListener method is named as process for example, the stream builder bean is named as stream-builder-process. Since this is a factory bean, it should be accessed by prepending an ampersand (&) when accessing it programmatically. Following is an example and it assumes the StreamListener method is named as process

StreamsBuilderFactoryBean streamsBuilderFactoryBean = context.getBean("&stream-builder-process", StreamsBuilderFactoryBean.class);
			KafkaStreams kafkaStreams = streamsBuilderFactoryBean.getKafkaStreams();

17. RabbitMQ Binder

17.1. Usage

To use the RabbitMQ binder, you can add it to your Spring Cloud Stream application, by using the following Maven coordinates:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

Alternatively, you can use the Spring Cloud Stream RabbitMQ Starter, as follows:

<dependency>
  <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
  <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-stream-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

17.2. RabbitMQ Binder Overview

The following simplified diagram shows how the RabbitMQ binder operates:

rabbit binder
Figure 11. RabbitMQ Binder

By default, the RabbitMQ Binder implementation maps each destination to a TopicExchange. For each consumer group, a Queue is bound to that TopicExchange. Each consumer instance has a corresponding RabbitMQ Consumer instance for its group’s Queue. For partitioned producers and consumers, the queues are suffixed with the partition index and use the partition index as the routing key. For anonymous consumers (those with no group property), an auto-delete queue (with a randomized unique name) is used.

By using the optional autoBindDlq option, you can configure the binder to create and configure dead-letter queues (DLQs) (and a dead-letter exchange DLX, as well as routing infrastructure). By default, the dead letter queue has the name of the destination, appended with .dlq. If retry is enabled (maxAttempts > 1), failed messages are delivered to the DLQ after retries are exhausted. If retry is disabled (maxAttempts = 1), you should set requeueRejected to false (the default) so that failed messages are routed to the DLQ, instead of being re-queued. In addition, republishToDlq causes the binder to publish a failed message to the DLQ (instead of rejecting it). This feature lets additional information (such as the stack trace in the x-exception-stacktrace header) be added to the message in headers. This option does not need retry enabled. You can republish a failed message after just one attempt. Starting with version 1.2, you can configure the delivery mode of republished messages. See the republishDeliveryMode property.

Setting requeueRejected to true (with republishToDlq=false ) causes the message to be re-queued and redelivered continually, which is likely not what you want unless the reason for the failure is transient. In general, you should enable retry within the binder by setting maxAttempts to greater than one or by setting republishToDlq to true.

See RabbitMQ Binder Properties for more information about these properties.

The framework does not provide any standard mechanism to consume dead-letter messages (or to re-route them back to the primary queue). Some options are described in Dead-Letter Queue Processing.

When multiple RabbitMQ binders are used in a Spring Cloud Stream application, it is important to disable 'RabbitAutoConfiguration' to avoid the same configuration from RabbitAutoConfiguration being applied to the two binders. You can exclude the class by using the @SpringBootApplication annotation.

Starting with version 2.0, the RabbitMessageChannelBinder sets the RabbitTemplate.userPublisherConnection property to true so that the non-transactional producers avoid deadlocks on consumers, which can happen if cached connections are blocked because of a memory alarm on the broker.

17.3. Configuration Options

This section contains settings specific to the RabbitMQ Binder and bound channels.

For general binding configuration options and properties, see the Spring Cloud Stream core documentation.

RabbitMQ Binder Properties

By default, the RabbitMQ binder uses Spring Boot’s ConnectionFactory. Conseuqently, it supports all Spring Boot configuration options for RabbitMQ. (For reference, see the Spring Boot documentation). RabbitMQ configuration options use the spring.rabbitmq prefix.

In addition to Spring Boot options, the RabbitMQ binder supports the following properties:

spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.binder.adminAddresses

A comma-separated list of RabbitMQ management plugin URLs. Only used when nodes contains more than one entry. Each entry in this list must have a corresponding entry in spring.rabbitmq.addresses. Only needed if you use a RabbitMQ cluster and wish to consume from the node that hosts the queue. See Queue Affinity and the LocalizedQueueConnectionFactory for more information.

Default: empty.

spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.binder.nodes

A comma-separated list of RabbitMQ node names. When more than one entry, used to locate the server address where a queue is located. Each entry in this list must have a corresponding entry in spring.rabbitmq.addresses. Only needed if you use a RabbitMQ cluster and wish to consume from the node that hosts the queue. See Queue Affinity and the LocalizedQueueConnectionFactory for more information.

Default: empty.

spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.binder.compressionLevel

The compression level for compressed bindings. See java.util.zip.Deflater.

Default: 1 (BEST_LEVEL).

spring.cloud.stream.binder.connection-name-prefix

A connection name prefix used to name the connection(s) created by this binder. The name is this prefix followed by #n, where n increments each time a new connection is opened.

Default: none (Spring AMQP default).

RabbitMQ Consumer Properties

The following properties are available for Rabbit consumers only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.<channelName>.consumer..

acknowledgeMode

The acknowledge mode.

Default: AUTO.

autoBindDlq

Whether to automatically declare the DLQ and bind it to the binder DLX.

Default: false.

bindingRoutingKey

The routing key with which to bind the queue to the exchange (if bindQueue is true). For partitioned destinations, -<instanceIndex> is appended.

Default: #.

bindQueue

Whether to bind the queue to the destination exchange. Set it to false if you have set up your own infrastructure and have previously created and bound the queue.

Default: true.

deadLetterQueueName

The name of the DLQ

Default: prefix+destination.dlq

deadLetterExchange

A DLX to assign to the queue. Relevant only if autoBindDlq is true.

Default: 'prefix+DLX'

deadLetterRoutingKey

A dead letter routing key to assign to the queue. Relevant only if autoBindDlq is true.

Default: destination

declareExchange

Whether to declare the exchange for the destination.

Default: true.

delayedExchange

Whether to declare the exchange as a Delayed Message Exchange. Requires the delayed message exchange plugin on the broker. The x-delayed-type argument is set to the exchangeType.

Default: false.

dlqDeadLetterExchange

If a DLQ is declared, a DLX to assign to that queue.

Default: none

dlqDeadLetterRoutingKey

If a DLQ is declared, a dead letter routing key to assign to that queue.

Default: none

dlqExpires

How long before an unused dead letter queue is deleted (in milliseconds).

Default: no expiration

dlqLazy

Declare the dead letter queue with the x-queue-mode=lazy argument. See “Lazy Queues”. Consider using a policy instead of this setting, because using a policy allows changing the setting without deleting the queue.

Default: false.

dlqMaxLength

Maximum number of messages in the dead letter queue.

Default: no limit

dlqMaxLengthBytes

Maximum number of total bytes in the dead letter queue from all messages.

Default: no limit

dlqMaxPriority

Maximum priority of messages in the dead letter queue (0-255).

Default: none

dlqTtl

Default time to live to apply to the dead letter queue when declared (in milliseconds).

Default: no limit

durableSubscription

Whether the subscription should be durable. Only effective if group is also set.

Default: true.

exchangeAutoDelete

If declareExchange is true, whether the exchange should be auto-deleted (that is, removed after the last queue is removed).

Default: true.

exchangeDurable

If declareExchange is true, whether the exchange should be durable (that is, it survives broker restart).

Default: true.

exchangeType

The exchange type: direct, fanout or topic for non-partitioned destinations and direct or topic for partitioned destinations.

Default: topic.

exclusive

Whether to create an exclusive consumer. Concurrency should be 1 when this is true. Often used when strict ordering is required but enabling a hot standby instance to take over after a failure. See recoveryInterval, which controls how often a standby instance attempts to consume.

Default: false.

expires

How long before an unused queue is deleted (in milliseconds).

Default: no expiration

failedDeclarationRetryInterval

The interval (in milliseconds) between attempts to consume from a queue if it is missing.

Default: 5000

headerPatterns

Patterns for headers to be mapped from inbound messages.

Default: ['*'] (all headers).

lazy

Declare the queue with the x-queue-mode=lazy argument. See “Lazy Queues”. Consider using a policy instead of this setting, because using a policy allows changing the setting without deleting the queue.

Default: false.

maxConcurrency

The maximum number of consumers.

Default: 1.

maxLength

The maximum number of messages in the queue.

Default: no limit

maxLengthBytes

The maximum number of total bytes in the queue from all messages.

Default: no limit

maxPriority

The maximum priority of messages in the queue (0-255).

Default: none

missingQueuesFatal

When the queue cannot be found, whether to treat the condition as fatal and stop the listener container. Defaults to false so that the container keeps trying to consume from the queue — for example, when using a cluster and the node hosting a non-HA queue is down.

Default: false

prefetch

Prefetch count.

Default: 1.

prefix

A prefix to be added to the name of the destination and queues.

Default: "".

queueDeclarationRetries

The number of times to retry consuming from a queue if it is missing. Relevant only when missingQueuesFatal is true. Otherwise, the container keeps retrying indefinitely.

Default: 3

queueNameGroupOnly

When true, consume from a queue with a name equal to the group. Otherwise the queue name is destination.group. This is useful, for example, when using Spring Cloud Stream to consume from an existing RabbitMQ queue.

Default: false.

recoveryInterval

The interval between connection recovery attempts, in milliseconds.

Default: 5000.

requeueRejected

Whether delivery failures should be re-queued when retry is disabled or republishToDlq is false.

Default: false.

republishDeliveryMode

When republishToDlq is true, specifies the delivery mode of the republished message.

Default: DeliveryMode.PERSISTENT

republishToDlq

By default, messages that fail after retries are exhausted are rejected. If a dead-letter queue (DLQ) is configured, RabbitMQ routes the failed message (unchanged) to the DLQ. If set to true, the binder republishs failed messages to the DLQ with additional headers, including the exception message and stack trace from the cause of the final failure.

Default: false

transacted

Whether to use transacted channels.

Default: false.

ttl

Default time to live to apply to the queue when declared (in milliseconds).

Default: no limit

txSize

The number of deliveries between acks.

Default: 1.

Rabbit Producer Properties

The following properties are available for Rabbit producers only and must be prefixed with spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.<channelName>.producer..

autoBindDlq

Whether to automatically declare the DLQ and bind it to the binder DLX.

Default: false.

batchingEnabled

Whether to enable message batching by producers. Messages are batched into one message according to the following properties (described in the next three entries in this list): 'batchSize', batchBufferLimit, and batchTimeout. See Batching for more information.

Default: false.

batchSize

The number of messages to buffer when batching is enabled.

Default: 100.

batchBufferLimit

The maximum buffer size when batching is enabled.

Default: 10000.

batchTimeout

The batch timeout when batching is enabled.

Default: 5000.

bindingRoutingKey

The routing key with which to bind the queue to the exchange (if bindQueue is true). Only applies to non-partitioned destinations. Only applies if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: #.

bindQueue

Whether to bind the queue to the destination exchange. Set it to false if you have set up your own infrastructure and have previously created and bound the queue. Only applies if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: true.

compress

Whether data should be compressed when sent.

Default: false.

deadLetterQueueName

The name of the DLQ Only applies if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: prefix+destination.dlq

deadLetterExchange

A DLX to assign to the queue. Relevant only when autoBindDlq is true. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: 'prefix+DLX'

deadLetterRoutingKey

A dead letter routing key to assign to the queue. Relevant only when autoBindDlq is true. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: destination

declareExchange

Whether to declare the exchange for the destination.

Default: true.

delayExpression

A SpEL expression to evaluate the delay to apply to the message (x-delay header). It has no effect if the exchange is not a delayed message exchange.

Default: No x-delay header is set.

delayedExchange

Whether to declare the exchange as a Delayed Message Exchange. Requires the delayed message exchange plugin on the broker. The x-delayed-type argument is set to the exchangeType.

Default: false.

deliveryMode

The delivery mode.

Default: PERSISTENT.

dlqDeadLetterExchange

When a DLQ is declared, a DLX to assign to that queue. Applies only if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: none

dlqDeadLetterRoutingKey

When a DLQ is declared, a dead letter routing key to assign to that queue. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: none

dlqExpires

How long (in milliseconds) before an unused dead letter queue is deleted. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no expiration

dlqLazy

Declare the dead letter queue with the x-queue-mode=lazy argument. See “Lazy Queues”. Consider using a policy instead of this setting, because using a policy allows changing the setting without deleting the queue. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

dlqMaxLength

Maximum number of messages in the dead letter queue. Applies only if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

dlqMaxLengthBytes

Maximum number of total bytes in the dead letter queue from all messages. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

dlqMaxPriority

Maximum priority of messages in the dead letter queue (0-255) Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: none

dlqTtl

Default time (in milliseconds) to live to apply to the dead letter queue when declared. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

exchangeAutoDelete

If declareExchange is true, whether the exchange should be auto-delete (it is removed after the last queue is removed).

Default: true.

exchangeDurable

If declareExchange is true, whether the exchange should be durable (survives broker restart).

Default: true.

exchangeType

The exchange type: direct, fanout or topic for non-partitioned destinations and direct or topic for partitioned destinations.

Default: topic.

expires

How long (in milliseconds) before an unused queue is deleted. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no expiration

headerPatterns

Patterns for headers to be mapped to outbound messages.

Default: ['*'] (all headers).

lazy

Declare the queue with the x-queue-mode=lazy argument. See “Lazy Queues”. Consider using a policy instead of this setting, because using a policy allows changing the setting without deleting the queue. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: false.

maxLength

Maximum number of messages in the queue. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

maxLengthBytes

Maximum number of total bytes in the queue from all messages. Only applies if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

maxPriority

Maximum priority of messages in the queue (0-255). Only applies if requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: none

prefix

A prefix to be added to the name of the destination exchange.

Default: "".

queueNameGroupOnly

When true, consume from a queue with a name equal to the group. Otherwise the queue name is destination.group. This is useful, for example, when using Spring Cloud Stream to consume from an existing RabbitMQ queue. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: false.

routingKeyExpression

A SpEL expression to determine the routing key to use when publishing messages. For a fixed routing key, use a literal expression, such as routingKeyExpression='my.routingKey' in a properties file or routingKeyExpression: '''my.routingKey''' in a YAML file.

Default: destination or destination-<partition> for partitioned destinations.

transacted

Whether to use transacted channels.

Default: false.

ttl

Default time (in milliseconds) to live to apply to the queue when declared. Applies only when requiredGroups are provided and then only to those groups.

Default: no limit

In the case of RabbitMQ, content type headers can be set by external applications. Spring Cloud Stream supports them as part of an extended internal protocol used for any type of transport — including transports, such as Kafka (prior to 0.11), that do not natively support headers.

17.4. Retry With the RabbitMQ Binder

When retry is enabled within the binder, the listener container thread is suspended for any back off periods that are configured. This might be important when strict ordering is required with a single consumer. However, for other use cases, it prevents other messages from being processed on that thread. An alternative to using binder retry is to set up dead lettering with time to live on the dead-letter queue (DLQ) as well as dead-letter configuration on the DLQ itself. See “RabbitMQ Binder Properties” for more information about the properties discussed here. You can use the following example configuration to enable this feature:

  • Set autoBindDlq to true. The binder create a DLQ. Optionally, you can specify a name in deadLetterQueueName.

  • Set dlqTtl to the back off time you want to wait between redeliveries.

  • Set the dlqDeadLetterExchange to the default exchange. Expired messages from the DLQ are routed to the original queue, because the default deadLetterRoutingKey is the queue name (destination.group). Setting to the default exchange is achieved by setting the property with no value, as shown in the next example.

To force a message to be dead-lettered, either throw an AmqpRejectAndDontRequeueException or set requeueRejected to true (the default) and throw any exception.

The loop continue without end, which is fine for transient problems, but you may want to give up after some number of attempts. Fortunately, RabbitMQ provides the x-death header, which lets you determine how many cycles have occurred.

To acknowledge a message after giving up, throw an ImmediateAcknowledgeAmqpException.

Putting it All Together

The following configuration creates an exchange myDestination with queue myDestination.consumerGroup bound to a topic exchange with a wildcard routing key #:

---
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.destination=myDestination
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.group=consumerGroup
#disable binder retries
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.input.consumer.max-attempts=1
#dlx/dlq setup
spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.auto-bind-dlq=true
spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.dlq-ttl=5000
spring.cloud.stream.rabbit.bindings.input.consumer.dlq-dead-letter-exchange=
---

This configuration creates a DLQ bound to a direct exchange (DLX) with a routing key of myDestination.consumerGroup. When messages are rejected, they are routed to the DLQ. After 5 seconds, the message expires and is routed to the original queue by using the queue name as the routing key, as shown in the following example:

Spring Boot application
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class XDeathApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(XDeathApplication.class, args);
    }

    @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
    public void listen(String in, @Header(name = "x-death", required = false) Map<?,?> death) {
        if (death != null && death.get("count").equals(3L)) {
            // giving up - don't send to DLX
            throw new ImmediateAcknowledgeAmqpException("Failed after 4 attempts");
        }
        throw new AmqpRejectAndDontRequeueException("failed");
    }

}

Notice that the count property in the x-death header is a Long.

17.5. Error Channels

Starting with version 1.3, the binder unconditionally sends exceptions to an error channel for each consumer destination and can also be configured to send async producer send failures to an error channel. See “[binder-error-channels]” for more information.

RabbitMQ has two types of send failures:

The latter is rare. According to the RabbitMQ documentation "[A nack] will only be delivered if an internal error occurs in the Erlang process responsible for a queue.".

As well as enabling producer error channels (as described in “[binder-error-channels]”), the RabbitMQ binder only sends messages to the channels if the connection factory is appropriately configured, as follows:

  • ccf.setPublisherConfirms(true);

  • ccf.setPublisherReturns(true);

When using Spring Boot configuration for the connection factory, set the following properties:

  • spring.rabbitmq.publisher-confirms

  • spring.rabbitmq.publisher-returns

The payload of the ErrorMessage for a returned message is a ReturnedAmqpMessageException with the following properties:

  • failedMessage: The spring-messaging Message<?> that failed to be sent.

  • amqpMessage: The raw spring-amqp Message.

  • replyCode: An integer value indicating the reason for the failure (for example, 312 - No route).

  • replyText: A text value indicating the reason for the failure (for example, NO_ROUTE).

  • exchange: The exchange to which the message was published.

  • routingKey: The routing key used when the message was published.

For negatively acknowledged confirmations, the payload is a NackedAmqpMessageException with the following properties:

  • failedMessage: The spring-messaging Message<?> that failed to be sent.

  • nackReason: A reason (if available — you may need to examine the broker logs for more information).

There is no automatic handling of these exceptions (such as sending to a dead-letter queue). You can consume these exceptions with your own Spring Integration flow.

17.6. Dead-Letter Queue Processing

Because you cannot anticipate how users would want to dispose of dead-lettered messages, the framework does not provide any standard mechanism to handle them. If the reason for the dead-lettering is transient, you may wish to route the messages back to the original queue. However, if the problem is a permanent issue, that could cause an infinite loop. The following Spring Boot application shows an example of how to route those messages back to the original queue but moves them to a third “parking lot” queue after three attempts. The second example uses the RabbitMQ Delayed Message Exchange to introduce a delay to the re-queued message. In this example, the delay increases for each attempt. These examples use a @RabbitListener to receive messages from the DLQ. You could also use RabbitTemplate.receive() in a batch process.

The examples assume the original destination is so8400in and the consumer group is so8400.

Non-Partitioned Destinations

The first two examples are for when the destination is not partitioned:

@SpringBootApplication
public class ReRouteDlqApplication {

    private static final String ORIGINAL_QUEUE = "so8400in.so8400";

    private static final String DLQ = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".dlq";

    private static final String PARKING_LOT = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".parkingLot";

    private static final String X_RETRIES_HEADER = "x-retries";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(ReRouteDlqApplication.class, args);
        System.out.println("Hit enter to terminate");
        System.in.read();
        context.close();
    }

    @Autowired
    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

    @RabbitListener(queues = DLQ)
    public void rePublish(Message failedMessage) {
        Integer retriesHeader = (Integer) failedMessage.getMessageProperties().getHeaders().get(X_RETRIES_HEADER);
        if (retriesHeader == null) {
            retriesHeader = Integer.valueOf(0);
        }
        if (retriesHeader < 3) {
            failedMessage.getMessageProperties().getHeaders().put(X_RETRIES_HEADER, retriesHeader + 1);
            this.rabbitTemplate.send(ORIGINAL_QUEUE, failedMessage);
        }
        else {
            this.rabbitTemplate.send(PARKING_LOT, failedMessage);
        }
    }

    @Bean
    public Queue parkingLot() {
        return new Queue(PARKING_LOT);
    }

}
@SpringBootApplication
public class ReRouteDlqApplication {

    private static final String ORIGINAL_QUEUE = "so8400in.so8400";

    private static final String DLQ = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".dlq";

    private static final String PARKING_LOT = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".parkingLot";

    private static final String X_RETRIES_HEADER = "x-retries";

    private static final String DELAY_EXCHANGE = "dlqReRouter";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(ReRouteDlqApplication.class, args);
        System.out.println("Hit enter to terminate");
        System.in.read();
        context.close();
    }

    @Autowired
    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

    @RabbitListener(queues = DLQ)
    public void rePublish(Message failedMessage) {
        Map<String, Object> headers = failedMessage.getMessageProperties().getHeaders();
        Integer retriesHeader = (Integer) headers.get(X_RETRIES_HEADER);
        if (retriesHeader == null) {
            retriesHeader = Integer.valueOf(0);
        }
        if (retriesHeader < 3) {
            headers.put(X_RETRIES_HEADER, retriesHeader + 1);
            headers.put("x-delay", 5000 * retriesHeader);
            this.rabbitTemplate.send(DELAY_EXCHANGE, ORIGINAL_QUEUE, failedMessage);
        }
        else {
            this.rabbitTemplate.send(PARKING_LOT, failedMessage);
        }
    }

    @Bean
    public DirectExchange delayExchange() {
        DirectExchange exchange = new DirectExchange(DELAY_EXCHANGE);
        exchange.setDelayed(true);
        return exchange;
    }

    @Bean
    public Binding bindOriginalToDelay() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(new Queue(ORIGINAL_QUEUE)).to(delayExchange()).with(ORIGINAL_QUEUE);
    }

    @Bean
    public Queue parkingLot() {
        return new Queue(PARKING_LOT);
    }

}
Partitioned Destinations

With partitioned destinations, there is one DLQ for all partitions. We determine the original queue from the headers.

republishToDlq=false

When republishToDlq is false, RabbitMQ publishes the message to the DLX/DLQ with an x-death header containing information about the original destination, as shown in the following example:

@SpringBootApplication
public class ReRouteDlqApplication {

	private static final String ORIGINAL_QUEUE = "so8400in.so8400";

	private static final String DLQ = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".dlq";

	private static final String PARKING_LOT = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".parkingLot";

	private static final String X_DEATH_HEADER = "x-death";

	private static final String X_RETRIES_HEADER = "x-retries";

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(ReRouteDlqApplication.class, args);
		System.out.println("Hit enter to terminate");
		System.in.read();
		context.close();
	}

	@Autowired
	private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

	@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
	@RabbitListener(queues = DLQ)
	public void rePublish(Message failedMessage) {
		Map<String, Object> headers = failedMessage.getMessageProperties().getHeaders();
		Integer retriesHeader = (Integer) headers.get(X_RETRIES_HEADER);
		if (retriesHeader == null) {
			retriesHeader = Integer.valueOf(0);
		}
		if (retriesHeader < 3) {
			headers.put(X_RETRIES_HEADER, retriesHeader + 1);
			List<Map<String, ?>> xDeath = (List<Map<String, ?>>) headers.get(X_DEATH_HEADER);
			String exchange = (String) xDeath.get(0).get("exchange");
			List<String> routingKeys = (List<String>) xDeath.get(0).get("routing-keys");
			this.rabbitTemplate.send(exchange, routingKeys.get(0), failedMessage);
		}
		else {
			this.rabbitTemplate.send(PARKING_LOT, failedMessage);
		}
	}

	@Bean
	public Queue parkingLot() {
		return new Queue(PARKING_LOT);
	}

}
republishToDlq=true

When republishToDlq is true, the republishing recoverer adds the original exchange and routing key to headers, as shown in the following example:

@SpringBootApplication
public class ReRouteDlqApplication {

	private static final String ORIGINAL_QUEUE = "so8400in.so8400";

	private static final String DLQ = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".dlq";

	private static final String PARKING_LOT = ORIGINAL_QUEUE + ".parkingLot";

	private static final String X_RETRIES_HEADER = "x-retries";

	private static final String X_ORIGINAL_EXCHANGE_HEADER = RepublishMessageRecoverer.X_ORIGINAL_EXCHANGE;

	private static final String X_ORIGINAL_ROUTING_KEY_HEADER = RepublishMessageRecoverer.X_ORIGINAL_ROUTING_KEY;

	public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
		ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(ReRouteDlqApplication.class, args);
		System.out.println("Hit enter to terminate");
		System.in.read();
		context.close();
	}

	@Autowired
	private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

	@RabbitListener(queues = DLQ)
	public void rePublish(Message failedMessage) {
		Map<String, Object> headers = failedMessage.getMessageProperties().getHeaders();
		Integer retriesHeader = (Integer) headers.get(X_RETRIES_HEADER);
		if (retriesHeader == null) {
			retriesHeader = Integer.valueOf(0);
		}
		if (retriesHeader < 3) {
			headers.put(X_RETRIES_HEADER, retriesHeader + 1);
			String exchange = (String) headers.get(X_ORIGINAL_EXCHANGE_HEADER);
			String originalRoutingKey = (String) headers.get(X_ORIGINAL_ROUTING_KEY_HEADER);
			this.rabbitTemplate.send(exchange, originalRoutingKey, failedMessage);
		}
		else {
			this.rabbitTemplate.send(PARKING_LOT, failedMessage);
		}
	}

	@Bean
	public Queue parkingLot() {
		return new Queue(PARKING_LOT);
	}

}

17.7. Partitioning with the RabbitMQ Binder

RabbitMQ does not support partitioning natively.

Sometimes, it is advantageous to send data to specific partitions — for example, when you want to strictly order message processing, all messages for a particular customer should go to the same partition.

The RabbitMessageChannelBinder provides partitioning by binding a queue for each partition to the destination exchange.

The following Java and YAML examples show how to configure the producer:

Producer
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Source.class)
public class RabbitPartitionProducerApplication {

    private static final Random RANDOM = new Random(System.currentTimeMillis());

    private static final String[] data = new String[] {
            "abc1", "def1", "qux1",
            "abc2", "def2", "qux2",
            "abc3", "def3", "qux3",
            "abc4", "def4", "qux4",
            };

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SpringApplicationBuilder(RabbitPartitionProducerApplication.class)
            .web(false)
            .run(args);
    }

    @InboundChannelAdapter(channel = Source.OUTPUT, poller = @Poller(fixedRate = "5000"))
    public Message<?> generate() {
        String value = data[RANDOM.nextInt(data.length)];
        System.out.println("Sending: " + value);
        return MessageBuilder.withPayload(value)
                .setHeader("partitionKey", value)
                .build();
    }

}
application.yml
    spring:
      cloud:
        stream:
          bindings:
            output:
              destination: partitioned.destination
              producer:
                partitioned: true
                partition-key-expression: headers['partitionKey']
                partition-count: 2
                required-groups:
                - myGroup

The configuration in the prececing example uses the default partitioning (key.hashCode() % partitionCount). This may or may not provide a suitably balanced algorithm, depending on the key values. You can override this default by using the partitionSelectorExpression or partitionSelectorClass properties.

The required-groups property is required only if you need the consumer queues to be provisioned when the producer is deployed. Otherwise, any messages sent to a partition are lost until the corresponding consumer is deployed.

The following configuration provisions a topic exchange:

part exchange

The following queues are bound to that exchange:

part queues

The following bindings associate the queues to the exchange:

part bindings

The following Java and YAML examples continue the previous examples and show how to configure the consumer:

Consumer
@SpringBootApplication
@EnableBinding(Sink.class)
public class RabbitPartitionConsumerApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new SpringApplicationBuilder(RabbitPartitionConsumerApplication.class)
            .web(false)
            .run(args);
    }

    @StreamListener(Sink.INPUT)
    public void listen(@Payload String in, @Header(AmqpHeaders.CONSUMER_QUEUE) String queue) {
        System.out.println(in + " received from queue " + queue);
    }

}
application.yml
    spring:
      cloud:
        stream:
          bindings:
            input:
              destination: partitioned.destination
              group: myGroup
              consumer:
                partitioned: true
                instance-index: 0
The RabbitMessageChannelBinder does not support dynamic scaling. There must be at least one consumer per partition. The consumer’s instanceIndex is used to indicate which partition is consumed. Platforms such as Cloud Foundry can have only one instance with an instanceIndex.

Appendices

Appendix A: Building

A.1. Basic Compile and Test

To build the source you will need to install JDK 1.7.

The build uses the Maven wrapper so you don’t have to install a specific version of Maven. To enable the tests for Redis, Rabbit, and Kafka bindings you should have those servers running before building. See below for more information on running the servers.

The main build command is

$ ./mvnw clean install

You can also add '-DskipTests' if you like, to avoid running the tests.

You can also install Maven (>=3.3.3) yourself and run the mvn command in place of ./mvnw in the examples below. If you do that you also might need to add -P spring if your local Maven settings do not contain repository declarations for spring pre-release artifacts.
Be aware that you might need to increase the amount of memory available to Maven by setting a MAVEN_OPTS environment variable with a value like -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m. We try to cover this in the .mvn configuration, so if you find you have to do it to make a build succeed, please raise a ticket to get the settings added to source control.

The projects that require middleware generally include a docker-compose.yml, so consider using Docker Compose to run the middeware servers in Docker containers. See the README in the scripts demo repository for specific instructions about the common cases of mongo, rabbit and redis.

A.2. Documentation

There is a "full" profile that will generate documentation.

A.3. Working with the code

If you don’t have an IDE preference we would recommend that you use Spring Tools Suite or Eclipse when working with the code. We use the m2eclipe eclipse plugin for maven support. Other IDEs and tools should also work without issue.

A.3.1. Importing into eclipse with m2eclipse

We recommend the m2eclipe eclipse plugin when working with eclipse. If you don’t already have m2eclipse installed it is available from the "eclipse marketplace".

Unfortunately m2e does not yet support Maven 3.3, so once the projects are imported into Eclipse you will also need to tell m2eclipse to use the .settings.xml file for the projects. If you do not do this you may see many different errors related to the POMs in the projects. Open your Eclipse preferences, expand the Maven preferences, and select User Settings. In the User Settings field click Browse and navigate to the Spring Cloud project you imported selecting the .settings.xml file in that project. Click Apply and then OK to save the preference changes.

Alternatively you can copy the repository settings from .settings.xml into your own ~/.m2/settings.xml.

A.3.2. Importing into eclipse without m2eclipse

If you prefer not to use m2eclipse you can generate eclipse project metadata using the following command:

$ ./mvnw eclipse:eclipse

The generated eclipse projects can be imported by selecting import existing projects from the file menu. [[contributing] == Contributing

Spring Cloud is released under the non-restrictive Apache 2.0 license, and follows a very standard Github development process, using Github tracker for issues and merging pull requests into master. If you want to contribute even something trivial please do not hesitate, but follow the guidelines below.

A.4. Sign the Contributor License Agreement

Before we accept a non-trivial patch or pull request we will need you to sign the contributor’s agreement. Signing the contributor’s agreement does not grant anyone commit rights to the main repository, but it does mean that we can accept your contributions, and you will get an author credit if we do. Active contributors might be asked to join the core team, and given the ability to merge pull requests.

A.5. Code Conventions and Housekeeping

None of these is essential for a pull request, but they will all help. They can also be added after the original pull request but before a merge.

  • Use the Spring Framework code format conventions. If you use Eclipse you can import formatter settings using the eclipse-code-formatter.xml file from the Spring Cloud Build project. If using IntelliJ, you can use the Eclipse Code Formatter Plugin to import the same file.

  • Make sure all new .java files to have a simple Javadoc class comment with at least an @author tag identifying you, and preferably at least a paragraph on what the class is for.

  • Add the ASF license header comment to all new .java files (copy from existing files in the project)

  • Add yourself as an @author to the .java files that you modify substantially (more than cosmetic changes).

  • Add some Javadocs and, if you change the namespace, some XSD doc elements.

  • A few unit tests would help a lot as well — someone has to do it.

  • If no-one else is using your branch, please rebase it against the current master (or other target branch in the main project).

  • When writing a commit message please follow these conventions, if you are fixing an existing issue please add Fixes gh-XXXX at the end of the commit message (where XXXX is the issue number).