20. Appendix

20.1 Security Database Schema

There are various database schema used by the framework and this appendix provides a single reference point to them all. You only need to provide the tables for the areas of functionality you require.

DDL statements are given for the HSQLDB database. You can use these as a guideline for defining the schema for the database you are using.

20.1.1 User Schema

The standard JDBC implementation of the UserDetailsService (JdbcDaoImpl) requires tables to load the password, account status (enabled or disabled) and a list of authorities (roles) for the user. You will need to adjust this schema to match the database dialect you are using.

create table users(
    username varchar_ignorecase(50) not null primary key,
    password varchar_ignorecase(50) not null,
    enabled boolean not null
);

create table authorities (
    username varchar_ignorecase(50) not null,
    authority varchar_ignorecase(50) not null,
    constraint fk_authorities_users foreign key(username) references users(username)
);
create unique index ix_auth_username on authorities (username,authority);

For Oracle database

CREATE TABLE USERS (
    USERNAME NVARCHAR2(128) PRIMARY KEY,
    PASSWORD NVARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL,
    ENABLED CHAR(1) CHECK (ENABLED IN ('Y','N') ) NOT NULL
);


CREATE TABLE AUTHORITIES (
    USERNAME NVARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL,
    AUTHORITY NVARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL
);
ALTER TABLE AUTHORITIES ADD CONSTRAINT AUTHORITIES_UNIQUE UNIQUE (USERNAME, AUTHORITY);
ALTER TABLE AUTHORITIES ADD CONSTRAINT AUTHORITIES_FK1 FOREIGN KEY (USERNAME) REFERENCES USERS (USERNAME) ENABLE;

Group Authorities

Spring Security 2.0 introduced support for group authorities in JdbcDaoImpl. The table structure if groups are enabled is as follows. You will need to adjust this schema to match the database dialect you are using.

create table groups (
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 0) primary key,
    group_name varchar_ignorecase(50) not null
);

create table group_authorities (
    group_id bigint not null,
    authority varchar(50) not null,
    constraint fk_group_authorities_group foreign key(group_id) references groups(id)
);

create table group_members (
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 0) primary key,
    username varchar(50) not null,
    group_id bigint not null,
    constraint fk_group_members_group foreign key(group_id) references groups(id)
);

Remember that these tables are only required if you are using the provided JDBC UserDetailsService implementation. If you write your own or choose to implement AuthenticationProvider without a UserDetailsService, then you have complete freedom over how you store the data, as long as the interface contract is satisfied.

20.1.2 Persistent Login (Remember-Me) Schema

This table is used to store data used by the more secure persistent token remember-me implementation. If you are using JdbcTokenRepositoryImpl either directly or through the namespace, then you will need this table. Remember to adjust this schema to match the database dialect you are using.

create table persistent_logins (
    username varchar(64) not null,
    series varchar(64) primary key,
    token varchar(64) not null,
    last_used timestamp not null
);

20.1.3 ACL Schema

There are four tables used by the Spring Security ACL implementation.

  1. acl_sid stores the security identities recognised by the ACL system. These can be unique principals or authorities which may apply to multiple principals.
  2. acl_class defines the domain object types to which ACLs apply. The class column stores the Java class name of the object.
  3. acl_object_identity stores the object identity definitions of specific domain objects.
  4. acl_entry stores the ACL permissions which apply to a specific object identity and security identity.

It is assumed that the database will auto-generate the primary keys for each of the identities. The JdbcMutableAclService has to be able to retrieve these when it has created a new row in the acl_sid or acl_class tables. It has two properties which define the SQL needed to retrieve these values classIdentityQuery and sidIdentityQuery. Both of these default to call identity()

The ACL artifact JAR contains files for creating the ACL schema in HyperSQL (HSQLDB), PostgreSQL, MySQL/MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle Database. These schemas are also demonstrated in the following sections.

HyperSQL

The default schema works with the embedded HSQLDB database that is used in unit tests within the framework.

create table acl_sid(
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 100) not null primary key,
    principal boolean not null,
    sid varchar_ignorecase(100) not null,
    constraint unique_uk_1 unique(sid,principal)
);

create table acl_class(
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 100) not null primary key,
    class varchar_ignorecase(100) not null,
    constraint unique_uk_2 unique(class)
);

create table acl_object_identity(
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 100) not null primary key,
    object_id_class bigint not null,
    object_id_identity varchar_ignorecase(36) not null,
    parent_object bigint,
    owner_sid bigint,
    entries_inheriting boolean not null,
    constraint unique_uk_3 unique(object_id_class,object_id_identity),
    constraint foreign_fk_1 foreign key(parent_object)references acl_object_identity(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_2 foreign key(object_id_class)references acl_class(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_3 foreign key(owner_sid)references acl_sid(id)
);

create table acl_entry(
    id bigint generated by default as identity(start with 100) not null primary key,
    acl_object_identity bigint not null,
    ace_order int not null,
    sid bigint not null,
    mask integer not null,
    granting boolean not null,
    audit_success boolean not null,
    audit_failure boolean not null,
    constraint unique_uk_4 unique(acl_object_identity,ace_order),
    constraint foreign_fk_4 foreign key(acl_object_identity) references acl_object_identity(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_5 foreign key(sid) references acl_sid(id)
);

PostgreSQL

create table acl_sid(
    id bigserial not null primary key,
    principal boolean not null,
    sid varchar(100) not null,
    constraint unique_uk_1 unique(sid,principal)
);

create table acl_class(
    id bigserial not null primary key,
    class varchar(100) not null,
    constraint unique_uk_2 unique(class)
);

create table acl_object_identity(
    id bigserial primary key,
    object_id_class bigint not null,
    object_id_identity varchar(36) not null,
    parent_object bigint,
    owner_sid bigint,
    entries_inheriting boolean not null,
    constraint unique_uk_3 unique(object_id_class,object_id_identity),
    constraint foreign_fk_1 foreign key(parent_object)references acl_object_identity(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_2 foreign key(object_id_class)references acl_class(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_3 foreign key(owner_sid)references acl_sid(id)
);

create table acl_entry(
    id bigserial primary key,
    acl_object_identity bigint not null,
    ace_order int not null,
    sid bigint not null,
    mask integer not null,
    granting boolean not null,
    audit_success boolean not null,
    audit_failure boolean not null,
    constraint unique_uk_4 unique(acl_object_identity,ace_order),
    constraint foreign_fk_4 foreign key(acl_object_identity) references acl_object_identity(id),
    constraint foreign_fk_5 foreign key(sid) references acl_sid(id)
);

You will have to set the classIdentityQuery and sidIdentityQuery properties of JdbcMutableAclService to the following values, respectively:

  • select currval(pg_get_serial_sequence('acl_class', 'id'))
  • select currval(pg_get_serial_sequence('acl_sid', 'id'))

MySQL and MariaDB

CREATE TABLE acl_sid (
    id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    principal BOOLEAN NOT NULL,
    sid VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE KEY unique_acl_sid (sid, principal)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE acl_class (
    id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    class VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE KEY uk_acl_class (class)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE acl_object_identity (
    id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    object_id_class BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
    object_id_identity VARCHAR(36) NOT NULL,
    parent_object BIGINT UNSIGNED,
    owner_sid BIGINT UNSIGNED,
    entries_inheriting BOOLEAN NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE KEY uk_acl_object_identity (object_id_class, object_id_identity),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_parent FOREIGN KEY (parent_object) REFERENCES acl_object_identity (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_class FOREIGN KEY (object_id_class) REFERENCES acl_class (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_owner FOREIGN KEY (owner_sid) REFERENCES acl_sid (id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;

CREATE TABLE acl_entry (
    id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    acl_object_identity BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
    ace_order INTEGER NOT NULL,
    sid BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
    mask INTEGER UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
    granting BOOLEAN NOT NULL,
    audit_success BOOLEAN NOT NULL,
    audit_failure BOOLEAN NOT NULL,
    UNIQUE KEY unique_acl_entry (acl_object_identity, ace_order),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_entry_object FOREIGN KEY (acl_object_identity) REFERENCES acl_object_identity (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_entry_acl FOREIGN KEY (sid) REFERENCES acl_sid (id)
) ENGINE=InnoDB;

Microsoft SQL Server

CREATE TABLE acl_sid (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
    principal BIT NOT NULL,
    sid VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT unique_acl_sid UNIQUE (sid, principal)
);

CREATE TABLE acl_class (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
    class VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT uk_acl_class UNIQUE (class)
);

CREATE TABLE acl_object_identity (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
    object_id_class BIGINT NOT NULL,
    object_id_identity VARCHAR(36) NOT NULL,
    parent_object BIGINT,
    owner_sid BIGINT,
    entries_inheriting BIT NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT uk_acl_object_identity UNIQUE (object_id_class, object_id_identity),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_parent FOREIGN KEY (parent_object) REFERENCES acl_object_identity (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_class FOREIGN KEY (object_id_class) REFERENCES acl_class (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_object_identity_owner FOREIGN KEY (owner_sid) REFERENCES acl_sid (id)
);

CREATE TABLE acl_entry (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
    acl_object_identity BIGINT NOT NULL,
    ace_order INTEGER NOT NULL,
    sid BIGINT NOT NULL,
    mask INTEGER NOT NULL,
    granting BIT NOT NULL,
    audit_success BIT NOT NULL,
    audit_failure BIT NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT unique_acl_entry UNIQUE (acl_object_identity, ace_order),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_entry_object FOREIGN KEY (acl_object_identity) REFERENCES acl_object_identity (id),
    CONSTRAINT fk_acl_entry_acl FOREIGN KEY (sid) REFERENCES acl_sid (id)
);

Oracle Database

CREATE TABLE ACL_SID (
    ID NUMBER(18) PRIMARY KEY,
    PRINCIPAL NUMBER(1) NOT NULL CHECK (PRINCIPAL IN (0, 1 )),
    SID NVARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT ACL_SID_UNIQUE UNIQUE (SID, PRINCIPAL)
);
CREATE SEQUENCE ACL_SID_SQ START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 NOMAXVALUE;
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER ACL_SID_SQ_TR BEFORE INSERT ON ACL_SID FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
    SELECT ACL_SID_SQ.NEXTVAL INTO :NEW.ID FROM DUAL;
END;


CREATE TABLE ACL_CLASS (
    ID NUMBER(18) PRIMARY KEY,
    CLASS NVARCHAR2(128) NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT ACL_CLASS_UNIQUE UNIQUE (CLASS)
);
CREATE SEQUENCE ACL_CLASS_SQ START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 NOMAXVALUE;
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER ACL_CLASS_ID_TR BEFORE INSERT ON ACL_CLASS FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
    SELECT ACL_CLASS_SQ.NEXTVAL INTO :NEW.ID FROM DUAL;
END;


CREATE TABLE ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY(
    ID NUMBER(18) PRIMARY KEY,
    OBJECT_ID_CLASS NUMBER(18) NOT NULL,
    OBJECT_ID_IDENTITY NVARCHAR2(64) NOT NULL,
    PARENT_OBJECT NUMBER(18),
    OWNER_SID NUMBER(18),
    ENTRIES_INHERITING NUMBER(1) NOT NULL CHECK (ENTRIES_INHERITING IN (0, 1)),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_UNIQUE UNIQUE (OBJECT_ID_CLASS, OBJECT_ID_IDENTITY),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_PARENT_FK FOREIGN KEY (PARENT_OBJECT) REFERENCES ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY(ID),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_CLASS_FK FOREIGN KEY (OBJECT_ID_CLASS) REFERENCES ACL_CLASS(ID),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_OWNER_FK FOREIGN KEY (OWNER_SID) REFERENCES ACL_SID(ID)
);
CREATE SEQUENCE ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_SQ START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 NOMAXVALUE;
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_ID_TR BEFORE INSERT ON ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
    SELECT ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY_SQ.NEXTVAL INTO :NEW.ID FROM DUAL;
END;


CREATE TABLE ACL_ENTRY (
    ID NUMBER(18) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
    ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY NUMBER(18) NOT NULL,
    ACE_ORDER INTEGER NOT NULL,
    SID NUMBER(18) NOT NULL,
    MASK INTEGER NOT NULL,
    GRANTING NUMBER(1) NOT NULL CHECK (GRANTING IN (0, 1)),
    AUDIT_SUCCESS NUMBER(1) NOT NULL CHECK (AUDIT_SUCCESS IN (0, 1)),
    AUDIT_FAILURE NUMBER(1) NOT NULL CHECK (AUDIT_FAILURE IN (0, 1)),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_ENTRY_UNIQUE UNIQUE (ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY, ACE_ORDER),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_ENTRY_OBJECT_FK FOREIGN KEY (ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY) REFERENCES ACL_OBJECT_IDENTITY (ID),
    CONSTRAINT ACL_ENTRY_ACL_FK FOREIGN KEY (SID) REFERENCES ACL_SID(ID)
);
CREATE SEQUENCE ACL_ENTRY_SQ START WITH 1 INCREMENT BY 1 NOMAXVALUE;
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER ACL_ENTRY_ID_TRIGGER BEFORE INSERT ON ACL_ENTRY FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
    SELECT ACL_ENTRY_SQ.NEXTVAL INTO :NEW.ID FROM DUAL;
END;

20.2 The Security Namespace

This appendix provides a reference to the elements available in the security namespace and information on the underlying beans they create (a knowledge of the individual classes and how they work together is assumed - you can find more information in the project Javadoc and elsewhere in this document). If you haven’t used the namespace before, please read the introductory chapter on namespace configuration, as this is intended as a supplement to the information there. Using a good quality XML editor while editing a configuration based on the schema is recommended as this will provide contextual information on which elements and attributes are available as well as comments explaining their purpose. The namespace is written in RELAX NG Compact format and later converted into an XSD schema. If you are familiar with this format, you may wish to examine the schema file directly.

20.2.1 Web Application Security

<debug>

Enables Spring Security debugging infrastructure. This will provide human-readable (multi-line) debugging information to monitor requests coming into the security filters. This may include sensitive information, such as request parameters or headers, and should only be used in a development environment.

<http>

If you use an <http> element within your application, a FilterChainProxy bean named "springSecurityFilterChain" is created and the configuration within the element is used to build a filter chain within FilterChainProxy. As of Spring Security 3.1, additional http elements can be used to add extra filter chains [15]. Some core filters are always created in a filter chain and others will be added to the stack depending on the attributes and child elements which are present. The positions of the standard filters are fixed (see the filter order table in the namespace introduction), removing a common source of errors with previous versions of the framework when users had to configure the filter chain explicitly in the FilterChainProxy bean. You can, of course, still do this if you need full control of the configuration.

All filters which require a reference to the AuthenticationManager will be automatically injected with the internal instance created by the namespace configuration (see the introductory chapter for more on the AuthenticationManager).

Each <http> namespace block always creates an SecurityContextPersistenceFilter, an ExceptionTranslationFilter and a FilterSecurityInterceptor. These are fixed and cannot be replaced with alternatives.

<http> Attributes

The attributes on the <http> element control some of the properties on the core filters.

  • access-decision-manager-ref Optional attribute specifying the ID of the AccessDecisionManager implementation which should be used for authorizing HTTP requests. By default an AffirmativeBased implementation is used for with a RoleVoter and an AuthenticatedVoter.
  • authentication-manager-ref A reference to the AuthenticationManager used for the FilterChain created by this http element.
  • auto-config Automatically registers a login form, BASIC authentication, logout services. If set to "true", all of these capabilities are added (although you can still customize the configuration of each by providing the respective element). If unspecified, defaults to "false". Use of this attribute is not recommended. Use explicit configuration elements instead to avoid confusion.
  • create-session Controls the eagerness with which an HTTP session is created by Spring Security classes. Options include:

    • always - Spring Security will proactively create a session if one does not exist.
    • ifRequired - Spring Security will only create a session only if one is required (default value).
    • never - Spring Security will never create a session, but will make use of one if the application does.
    • stateless - Spring Security will not create a session and ignore the session for obtaining a Spring Authentication.
  • disable-url-rewriting Prevents session IDs from being appended to URLs in the application. Clients must use cookies if this attribute is set to true. The default is true.
  • entry-point-ref Normally the AuthenticationEntryPoint used will be set depending on which authentication mechanisms have been configured. This attribute allows this behaviour to be overridden by defining a customized AuthenticationEntryPoint bean which will start the authentication process.
  • jaas-api-provision If available, runs the request as the Subject acquired from the JaasAuthenticationToken which is implemented by adding a JaasApiIntegrationFilter bean to the stack. Defaults to false.
  • name A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • once-per-request Corresponds to the observeOncePerRequest property of FilterSecurityInterceptor. Defaults to true.
  • pattern Defining a pattern for the http element controls the requests which will be filtered through the list of filters which it defines. The interpretation is dependent on the configured request-matcher. If no pattern is defined, all requests will be matched, so the most specific patterns should be declared first.
  • realm Sets the realm name used for basic authentication (if enabled). Corresponds to the realmName property on BasicAuthenticationEntryPoint.
  • request-matcher Defines the RequestMatcher strategy used in the FilterChainProxy and the beans created by the intercept-url to match incoming requests. Options are currently mvc, ant, regex and ciRegex, for Spring MVC, ant, regular-expression and case-insensitive regular-expression respectively. A separate instance is created for each intercept-url element using its pattern, method and servlet-path attributes. Ant paths are matched using an AntPathRequestMatcher, regular expressions are matched using a RegexRequestMatcher and for Spring MVC path matching the MvcRequestMatcher is used. See the Javadoc for these classes for more details on exactly how the matching is performed. Ant paths are the default strategy.
  • request-matcher-ref A reference to a bean that implements RequestMatcher that will determine if this FilterChain should be used. This is a more powerful alternative to pattern.
  • security A request pattern can be mapped to an empty filter chain, by setting this attribute to none. No security will be applied and none of Spring Security’s features will be available.
  • security-context-repository-ref Allows injection of a custom SecurityContextRepository into the SecurityContextPersistenceFilter.
  • servlet-api-provision Provides versions of HttpServletRequest security methods such as isUserInRole() and getPrincipal() which are implemented by adding a SecurityContextHolderAwareRequestFilter bean to the stack. Defaults to true.
  • use-expressions Enables EL-expressions in the access attribute, as described in the chapter on expression-based access-control. The default value is true.

<access-denied-handler>

This element allows you to set the errorPage property for the default AccessDeniedHandler used by the ExceptionTranslationFilter, using the error-page attribute, or to supply your own implementation using theref attribute. This is discussed in more detail in the section on the ExceptionTranslationFilter.

Parent Elements of <access-denied-handler>
<access-denied-handler> Attributes
  • error-page The access denied page that an authenticated user will be redirected to if they request a page which they don’t have the authority to access.
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean of type AccessDeniedHandler.

<cors>

This element allows for configuring a CorsFilter. If no CorsFilter or CorsConfigurationSource is specified and Spring MVC is on the classpath, a HandlerMappingIntrospector is used as the CorsConfigurationSource.

<cors> Attributes

The attributes on the <cors> element control the headers element.

  • ref Optional attribute that specifies the bean name of a CorsFilter.
  • cors-configuration-source-ref Optional attribute that specifies the bean name of a CorsConfigurationSource to be injected into a CorsFilter created by the XML namespace.
Parent Elements of <cors>

<headers>

This element allows for configuring additional (security) headers to be send with the response. It enables easy configuration for several headers and also allows for setting custom headers through the header element. Additional information, can be found in the Security Headers section of the reference.

  • Cache-Control, Pragma, and Expires - Can be set using the cache-control element. This ensures that the browser does not cache your secured pages.
  • Strict-Transport-Security - Can be set using the hsts element. This ensures that the browser automatically requests HTTPS for future requests.
  • X-Frame-Options - Can be set using the frame-options element. The X-Frame-Options header can be used to prevent clickjacking attacks.
  • X-XSS-Protection - Can be set using the xss-protection element. The X-XSS-Protection header can be used by browser to do basic control.
  • X-Content-Type-Options - Can be set using the content-type-options element. The X-Content-Type-Options header prevents Internet Explorer from MIME-sniffing a response away from the declared content-type. This also applies to Google Chrome, when downloading extensions.
  • Public-Key-Pinning or Public-Key-Pinning-Report-Only - Can be set using the hpkp element. This allows HTTPS websites to resist impersonation by attackers using mis-issued or otherwise fraudulent certificates.
  • Content-Security-Policy or Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only - Can be set using the content-security-policy element. Content Security Policy (CSP) is a mechanism that web applications can leverage to mitigate content injection vulnerabilities, such as cross-site scripting (XSS).
  • Referrer-Policy - Can be set using the referrer-policy element, Referrer-Policy is a mechanism that web applications can leverage to manage the referrer field, which contains the last page the user was on.
  • Feature-Policy - Can be set using the feature-policy element, Feature-Policy is a mechanism that allows web developers to selectively enable, disable, and modify the behavior of certain APIs and web features in the browser.
<headers> Attributes

The attributes on the <headers> element control the headers element.

  • defaults-disabled Optional attribute that specifies to disable the default Spring Security’s HTTP response headers. The default is false (the default headers are included).
  • disabled Optional attribute that specifies to disable Spring Security’s HTTP response headers. The default is false (the headers are enabled).
Parent Elements of <headers>

<cache-control>

Adds Cache-Control, Pragma, and Expires headers to ensure that the browser does not cache your secured pages.

<cache-control> Attributes
  • disabled Specifies if Cache Control should be disabled. Default false.
Parent Elements of <cache-control>

<hsts>

When enabled adds the Strict-Transport-Security header to the response for any secure request. This allows the server to instruct browsers to automatically use HTTPS for future requests.

<hsts> Attributes
  • disabled Specifies if Strict-Transport-Security should be disabled. Default false.
  • include-sub-domains Specifies if subdomains should be included. Default true.
  • max-age-seconds Specifies the maximum amount of time the host should be considered a Known HSTS Host. Default one year.
  • request-matcher-ref The RequestMatcher instance to be used to determine if the header should be set. Default is if HttpServletRequest.isSecure() is true.
  • preload Specifies if preload should be included. Default false.
Parent Elements of <hsts>

<hpkp>

When enabled adds the Public Key Pinning Extension for HTTP header to the response for any secure request. This allows HTTPS websites to resist impersonation by attackers using mis-issued or otherwise fraudulent certificates.

<hpkp> Attributes
  • disabled Specifies if HTTP Public Key Pinning (HPKP) should be disabled. Default true.
  • include-sub-domains Specifies if subdomains should be included. Default false.
  • max-age-seconds Sets the value for the max-age directive of the Public-Key-Pins header. Default 60 days.
  • report-only Specifies if the browser should only report pin validation failures. Default true.
  • report-uri Specifies the URI to which the browser should report pin validation failures.
Parent Elements of <hpkp>

<pins>

The list of pins

Child Elements of <pins>

<pin>

A pin is specified using the base64-encoded SPKI fingerprint as value and the cryptographic hash algorithm as attribute

<pin> Attributes
  • algorithm The cryptographic hash algorithm. Default is SHA256.
Parent Elements of <pin>

<content-security-policy>

When enabled adds the Content Security Policy (CSP) header to the response. CSP is a mechanism that web applications can leverage to mitigate content injection vulnerabilities, such as cross-site scripting (XSS).

<content-security-policy> Attributes
  • policy-directives The security policy directive(s) for the Content-Security-Policy header or if report-only is set to true, then the Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only header is used.
  • report-only Set to true, to enable the Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only header for reporting policy violations only. Defaults to false.
Parent Elements of <content-security-policy>

<referrer-policy>

When enabled adds the Referrer Policy header to the response.

<referrer-policy> Attributes
  • policy The policy for the Referrer-Policy header. Default "no-referrer".
Parent Elements of <referrer-policy>

<feature-policy>

When enabled adds the Feature Policy header to the response.

<feature-policy> Attributes
  • policy-directives The security policy directive(s) for the Feature-Policy header.
Parent Elements of <feature-policy>

<frame-options>

When enabled adds the X-Frame-Options header to the response, this allows newer browsers to do some security checks and prevent clickjacking attacks.

<frame-options> Attributes
  • disabled If disabled, the X-Frame-Options header will not be included. Default false.
  • policy

    • DENY The page cannot be displayed in a frame, regardless of the site attempting to do so. This is the default when frame-options-policy is specified.
    • SAMEORIGIN The page can only be displayed in a frame on the same origin as the page itself
    • ALLOW-FROM origin The page can only be displayed in a frame on the specified origin.

    In other words, if you specify DENY, not only will attempts to load the page in a frame fail when loaded from other sites, attempts to do so will fail when loaded from the same site. On the other hand, if you specify SAMEORIGIN, you can still use the page in a frame as long as the site including it in a frame it is the same as the one serving the page.

  • strategy Select the AllowFromStrategy to use when using the ALLOW-FROM policy.

    • static Use a single static ALLOW-FROM value. The value can be set through the value attribute.
    • regexp Use a regelur expression to validate incoming requests and if they are allowed. The regular expression can be set through the value attribute. The request parameter used to retrieve the value to validate can be specified using the from-parameter.
    • whitelist A comma-seperated list containing the allowed domains. The comma-seperated list can be set through the value attribute. The request parameter used to retrieve the value to validate can be specified using the from-parameter.
  • ref Instead of using one of the predefined strategies it is also possible to use a custom AllowFromStrategy. The reference to this bean can be specified through this ref attribute.
  • value The value to use when ALLOW-FROM is used a strategy.
  • from-parameter Specify the name of the request parameter to use when using regexp or whitelist for the ALLOW-FROM strategy.
Parent Elements of <frame-options>

<xss-protection>

Adds the X-XSS-Protection header to the response to assist in protecting against reflected / Type-1 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks. This is in no-way a full protection to XSS attacks!

<xss-protection> Attributes
  • xss-protection-block When true and xss-protection-enabled is true, adds mode=block to the header. This indicates to the browser that the page should not be loaded at all. When false and xss-protection-enabled is true, the page will still be rendered when an reflected attack is detected but the response will be modified to protect against the attack. Note that there are sometimes ways of bypassing this mode which can often times make blocking the page more desirable.
Parent Elements of <xss-protection>

<content-type-options>

Add the X-Content-Type-Options header with the value of nosniff to the response. This disables MIME-sniffing for IE8+ and Chrome extensions.

<content-type-options> Attributes
  • disabled Specifies if Content Type Options should be disabled. Default false.
Parent Elements of <content-type-options>

<header>

Add additional headers to the response, both the name and value need to be specified.

<header-attributes> Attributes
  • header-name The name of the header.
  • value The value of the header to add.
  • ref Reference to a custom implementation of the HeaderWriter interface.
Parent Elements of <header>

<anonymous>

Adds an AnonymousAuthenticationFilter to the stack and an AnonymousAuthenticationProvider. Required if you are using the IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY attribute.

Parent Elements of <anonymous>
<anonymous> Attributes
  • enabled With the default namespace setup, the anonymous "authentication" facility is automatically enabled. You can disable it using this property.
  • granted-authority The granted authority that should be assigned to the anonymous request. Commonly this is used to assign the anonymous request particular roles, which can subsequently be used in authorization decisions. If unset, defaults to ROLE_ANONYMOUS.
  • key The key shared between the provider and filter. This generally does not need to be set. If unset, it will default to a secure randomly generated value. This means setting this value can improve startup time when using the anonymous functionality since secure random values can take a while to be generated.
  • username The username that should be assigned to the anonymous request. This allows the principal to be identified, which may be important for logging and auditing. if unset, defaults to anonymousUser.

<csrf>

This element will add Cross Site Request Forger (CSRF) protection to the application. It also updates the default RequestCache to only replay "GET" requests upon successful authentication. Additional information can be found in the Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) section of the reference.

Parent Elements of <csrf>
<csrf> Attributes
  • disabled Optional attribute that specifies to disable Spring Security’s CSRF protection. The default is false (CSRF protection is enabled). It is highly recommended to leave CSRF protection enabled.
  • token-repository-ref The CsrfTokenRepository to use. The default is HttpSessionCsrfTokenRepository.
  • request-matcher-ref The RequestMatcher instance to be used to determine if CSRF should be applied. Default is any HTTP method except "GET", "TRACE", "HEAD", "OPTIONS".

<custom-filter>

This element is used to add a filter to the filter chain. It doesn’t create any additional beans but is used to select a bean of type javax.servlet.Filter which is already defined in the application context and add that at a particular position in the filter chain maintained by Spring Security. Full details can be found in the namespace chapter.

Parent Elements of <custom-filter>
<custom-filter> Attributes
  • after The filter immediately after which the custom-filter should be placed in the chain. This feature will only be needed by advanced users who wish to mix their own filters into the security filter chain and have some knowledge of the standard Spring Security filters. The filter names map to specific Spring Security implementation filters.
  • before The filter immediately before which the custom-filter should be placed in the chain
  • position The explicit position at which the custom-filter should be placed in the chain. Use if you are replacing a standard filter.
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements Filter.

<expression-handler>

Defines the SecurityExpressionHandler instance which will be used if expression-based access-control is enabled. A default implementation (with no ACL support) will be used if not supplied.

Parent Elements of <expression-handler>
<expression-handler> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements SecurityExpressionHandler.

<form-login>

Used to add an UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter to the filter stack and an LoginUrlAuthenticationEntryPoint to the application context to provide authentication on demand. This will always take precedence over other namespace-created entry points. If no attributes are supplied, a login page will be generated automatically at the URL "/login" [16] The behaviour can be customized using the <form-login> Attributes.

Parent Elements of <form-login>
<form-login> Attributes
  • always-use-default-target If set to true, the user will always start at the value given by default-target-url, regardless of how they arrived at the login page. Maps to the alwaysUseDefaultTargetUrl property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter. Default value is false.
  • authentication-details-source-ref Reference to an AuthenticationDetailsSource which will be used by the authentication filter
  • authentication-failure-handler-ref Can be used as an alternative to authentication-failure-url, giving you full control over the navigation flow after an authentication failure. The value should be the name of an AuthenticationFailureHandler bean in the application context.
  • authentication-failure-url Maps to the authenticationFailureUrl property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter. Defines the URL the browser will be redirected to on login failure. Defaults to /login?error, which will be automatically handled by the automatic login page generator, re-rendering the login page with an error message.
  • authentication-success-handler-ref This can be used as an alternative to default-target-url and always-use-default-target, giving you full control over the navigation flow after a successful authentication. The value should be the name of an AuthenticationSuccessHandler bean in the application context. By default, an implementation of SavedRequestAwareAuthenticationSuccessHandler is used and injected with the default-target-url.
  • default-target-url Maps to the defaultTargetUrl property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter. If not set, the default value is "/" (the application root). A user will be taken to this URL after logging in, provided they were not asked to login while attempting to access a secured resource, when they will be taken to the originally requested URL.
  • login-page The URL that should be used to render the login page. Maps to the loginFormUrl property of the LoginUrlAuthenticationEntryPoint. Defaults to "/login".
  • login-processing-url Maps to the filterProcessesUrl property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter. The default value is "/login".
  • password-parameter The name of the request parameter which contains the password. Defaults to "password".
  • username-parameter The name of the request parameter which contains the username. Defaults to "username".
  • authentication-success-forward-url Maps a ForwardAuthenticationSuccessHandler to authenticationSuccessHandler property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.
  • authentication-failure-forward-url Maps a ForwardAuthenticationFailureHandler to authenticationFailureHandler property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.

<http-basic>

Adds a BasicAuthenticationFilter and BasicAuthenticationEntryPoint to the configuration. The latter will only be used as the configuration entry point if form-based login is not enabled.

Parent Elements of <http-basic>
<http-basic> Attributes
  • authentication-details-source-ref Reference to an AuthenticationDetailsSource which will be used by the authentication filter
  • entry-point-ref Sets the AuthenticationEntryPoint which is used by the BasicAuthenticationFilter.

<http-firewall> Element

This is a top-level element which can be used to inject a custom implementation of HttpFirewall into the FilterChainProxy created by the namespace. The default implementation should be suitable for most applications.

<http-firewall> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements HttpFirewall.

<intercept-url>

This element is used to define the set of URL patterns that the application is interested in and to configure how they should be handled. It is used to construct the FilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource used by the FilterSecurityInterceptor. It is also responsible for configuring a ChannelProcessingFilter if particular URLs need to be accessed by HTTPS, for example. When matching the specified patterns against an incoming request, the matching is done in the order in which the elements are declared. So the most specific patterns should come first and the most general should come last.

Parent Elements of <intercept-url>
<intercept-url> Attributes
  • access Lists the access attributes which will be stored in the FilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource for the defined URL pattern/method combination. This should be a comma-separated list of the security configuration attributes (such as role names).
  • method The HTTP Method which will be used in combination with the pattern and servlet path (optional) to match an incoming request. If omitted, any method will match. If an identical pattern is specified with and without a method, the method-specific match will take precedence.
  • pattern The pattern which defines the URL path. The content will depend on the request-matcher attribute from the containing http element, so will default to ant path syntax.
  • request-matcher-ref A reference to a RequestMatcher that will be used to determine if this <intercept-url> is used.
  • requires-channel Can be "http" or "https" depending on whether a particular URL pattern should be accessed over HTTP or HTTPS respectively. Alternatively the value "any" can be used when there is no preference. If this attribute is present on any <intercept-url> element, then a ChannelProcessingFilter will be added to the filter stack and its additional dependencies added to the application context.

If a <port-mappings> configuration is added, this will be used to by the SecureChannelProcessor and InsecureChannelProcessor beans to determine the ports used for redirecting to HTTP/HTTPS.

[Note]Note

This property is invalid for filter-security-metadata-source

  • servlet-path The servlet path which will be used in combination with the pattern and HTTP method to match an incoming request. This attribute is only applicable when request-matcher is 'mvc'. In addition, the value is only required in the following 2 use cases: 1) There are 2 or more HttpServlet 's registered in the ServletContext that have mappings starting with '/' and are different; 2) The pattern starts with the same value of a registered HttpServlet path, excluding the default (root) HttpServlet '/'.
[Note]Note

This property is invalid for filter-security-metadata-source

<jee>

Adds a J2eePreAuthenticatedProcessingFilter to the filter chain to provide integration with container authentication.

Parent Elements of <jee>
<jee> Attributes
  • mappable-roles A comma-separate list of roles to look for in the incoming HttpServletRequest.
  • user-service-ref A reference to a user-service (or UserDetailsService bean) Id

<logout>

Adds a LogoutFilter to the filter stack. This is configured with a SecurityContextLogoutHandler.

Parent Elements of <logout>
<logout> Attributes
  • delete-cookies A comma-separated list of the names of cookies which should be deleted when the user logs out.
  • invalidate-session Maps to the invalidateHttpSession of the SecurityContextLogoutHandler. Defaults to "true", so the session will be invalidated on logout.
  • logout-success-url The destination URL which the user will be taken to after logging out. Defaults to <form-login-login-page>/?logout (i.e. /login?logout)

    Setting this attribute will inject the SessionManagementFilter with a SimpleRedirectInvalidSessionStrategy configured with the attribute value. When an invalid session ID is submitted, the strategy will be invoked, redirecting to the configured URL.

  • logout-url The URL which will cause a logout (i.e. which will be processed by the filter). Defaults to "/logout".
  • success-handler-ref May be used to supply an instance of LogoutSuccessHandler which will be invoked to control the navigation after logging out.

<openid-login>

Similar to <form-login> and has the same attributes. The default value for login-processing-url is "/login/openid". An OpenIDAuthenticationFilter and OpenIDAuthenticationProvider will be registered. The latter requires a reference to a UserDetailsService. Again, this can be specified by id, using the user-service-ref attribute, or will be located automatically in the application context.

Parent Elements of <openid-login>
<openid-login> Attributes
  • always-use-default-target Whether the user should always be redirected to the default-target-url after login.
  • authentication-details-source-ref Reference to an AuthenticationDetailsSource which will be used by the authentication filter
  • authentication-failure-handler-ref Reference to an AuthenticationFailureHandler bean which should be used to handle a failed authentication request. Should not be used in combination with authentication-failure-url as the implementation should always deal with navigation to the subsequent destination
  • authentication-failure-url The URL for the login failure page. If no login failure URL is specified, Spring Security will automatically create a failure login URL at /login?login_error and a corresponding filter to render that login failure URL when requested.
  • authentication-success-forward-url Maps a ForwardAuthenticationSuccessHandler to authenticationSuccessHandler property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.
  • authentication-failure-forward-url Maps a ForwardAuthenticationFailureHandler to authenticationFailureHandler property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.
  • authentication-success-handler-ref Reference to an AuthenticationSuccessHandler bean which should be used to handle a successful authentication request. Should not be used in combination with default-target-url (or always-use-default-target) as the implementation should always deal with navigation to the subsequent destination
  • default-target-url The URL that will be redirected to after successful authentication, if the user’s previous action could not be resumed. This generally happens if the user visits a login page without having first requested a secured operation that triggers authentication. If unspecified, defaults to the root of the application.
  • login-page The URL for the login page. If no login URL is specified, Spring Security will automatically create a login URL at /login and a corresponding filter to render that login URL when requested.
  • login-processing-url The URL that the login form is posted to. If unspecified, it defaults to /login.
  • password-parameter The name of the request parameter which contains the password. Defaults to "password".
  • user-service-ref A reference to a user-service (or UserDetailsService bean) Id
  • username-parameter The name of the request parameter which contains the username. Defaults to "username".
Child Elements of <openid-login>

<attribute-exchange>

The attribute-exchange element defines the list of attributes which should be requested from the identity provider. An example can be found in the OpenID Support section of the namespace configuration chapter. More than one can be used, in which case each must have an identifier-match attribute, containing a regular expression which is matched against the supplied OpenID identifier. This allows different attribute lists to be fetched from different providers (Google, Yahoo etc).

Parent Elements of <attribute-exchange>
<attribute-exchange> Attributes
  • identifier-match A regular expression which will be compared against the claimed identity, when deciding which attribute-exchange configuration to use during authentication.
Child Elements of <attribute-exchange>

<openid-attribute>

Attributes used when making an OpenID AX Fetch Request

Parent Elements of <openid-attribute>
<openid-attribute> Attributes
  • count Specifies the number of attributes that you wish to get back. For example, return 3 emails. The default value is 1.
  • name Specifies the name of the attribute that you wish to get back. For example, email.
  • required Specifies if this attribute is required to the OP, but does not error out if the OP does not return the attribute. Default is false.

<port-mappings>

By default, an instance of PortMapperImpl will be added to the configuration for use in redirecting to secure and insecure URLs. This element can optionally be used to override the default mappings which that class defines. Each child <port-mapping> element defines a pair of HTTP:HTTPS ports. The default mappings are 80:443 and 8080:8443. An example of overriding these can be found in the namespace introduction.

Parent Elements of <port-mappings>
Child Elements of <port-mappings>

<port-mapping>

Provides a method to map http ports to https ports when forcing a redirect.

Parent Elements of <port-mapping>
<port-mapping> Attributes
  • http The http port to use.
  • https The https port to use.

<remember-me>

Adds the RememberMeAuthenticationFilter to the stack. This in turn will be configured with either a TokenBasedRememberMeServices, a PersistentTokenBasedRememberMeServices or a user-specified bean implementing RememberMeServices depending on the attribute settings.

Parent Elements of <remember-me>
<remember-me> Attributes
  • authentication-success-handler-ref Sets the authenticationSuccessHandler property on the RememberMeAuthenticationFilter if custom navigation is required. The value should be the name of a AuthenticationSuccessHandler bean in the application context.
  • data-source-ref A reference to a DataSource bean. If this is set, PersistentTokenBasedRememberMeServices will be used and configured with a JdbcTokenRepositoryImpl instance.
  • remember-me-parameter The name of the request parameter which toggles remember-me authentication. Defaults to "remember-me". Maps to the "parameter" property of AbstractRememberMeServices.
  • remember-me-cookie The name of cookie which store the token for remember-me authentication. Defaults to "remember-me". Maps to the "cookieName" property of AbstractRememberMeServices.
  • key Maps to the "key" property of AbstractRememberMeServices. Should be set to a unique value to ensure that remember-me cookies are only valid within the one application [17]. If this is not set a secure random value will be generated. Since generating secure random values can take a while, setting this value explicitly can help improve startup times when using the remember-me functionality.
  • services-alias Exports the internally defined RememberMeServices as a bean alias, allowing it to be used by other beans in the application context.
  • services-ref Allows complete control of the RememberMeServices implementation that will be used by the filter. The value should be the id of a bean in the application context which implements this interface. Should also implement LogoutHandler if a logout filter is in use.
  • token-repository-ref Configures a PersistentTokenBasedRememberMeServices but allows the use of a custom PersistentTokenRepository bean.
  • token-validity-seconds Maps to the tokenValiditySeconds property of AbstractRememberMeServices. Specifies the period in seconds for which the remember-me cookie should be valid. By default it will be valid for 14 days.
  • use-secure-cookie It is recommended that remember-me cookies are only submitted over HTTPS and thus should be flagged as "secure". By default, a secure cookie will be used if the connection over which the login request is made is secure (as it should be). If you set this property to false, secure cookies will not be used. Setting it to true will always set the secure flag on the cookie. This attribute maps to the useSecureCookie property of AbstractRememberMeServices.
  • user-service-ref The remember-me services implementations require access to a UserDetailsService, so there has to be one defined in the application context. If there is only one, it will be selected and used automatically by the namespace configuration. If there are multiple instances, you can specify a bean id explicitly using this attribute.

<request-cache> Element

Sets the RequestCache instance which will be used by the ExceptionTranslationFilter to store request information before invoking an AuthenticationEntryPoint.

Parent Elements of <request-cache>
<request-cache> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that is a RequestCache.

<session-management>

Session-management related functionality is implemented by the addition of a SessionManagementFilter to the filter stack.

Parent Elements of <session-management>
<session-management> Attributes
  • invalid-session-url Setting this attribute will inject the SessionManagementFilter with a SimpleRedirectInvalidSessionStrategy configured with the attribute value. When an invalid session ID is submitted, the strategy will be invoked, redirecting to the configured URL.
  • invalid-session-url Allows injection of the InvalidSessionStrategy instance used by the SessionManagementFilter. Use either this or the invalid-session-url attribute but not both.
  • session-authentication-error-url Defines the URL of the error page which should be shown when the SessionAuthenticationStrategy raises an exception. If not set, an unauthorized (401) error code will be returned to the client. Note that this attribute doesn’t apply if the error occurs during a form-based login, where the URL for authentication failure will take precedence.
  • session-authentication-strategy-ref Allows injection of the SessionAuthenticationStrategy instance used by the SessionManagementFilter
  • session-fixation-protection Indicates how session fixation protection will be applied when a user authenticates. If set to "none", no protection will be applied. "newSession" will create a new empty session, with only Spring Security-related attributes migrated. "migrateSession" will create a new session and copy all session attributes to the new session. In Servlet 3.1 (Java EE 7) and newer containers, specifying "changeSessionId" will keep the existing session and use the container-supplied session fixation protection (HttpServletRequest#changeSessionId()). Defaults to "changeSessionId" in Servlet 3.1 and newer containers, "migrateSession" in older containers. Throws an exception if "changeSessionId" is used in older containers.

    If session fixation protection is enabled, the SessionManagementFilter is injected with an appropriately configured DefaultSessionAuthenticationStrategy. See the Javadoc for this class for more details.

Child Elements of <session-management>

<concurrency-control>

Adds support for concurrent session control, allowing limits to be placed on the number of active sessions a user can have. A ConcurrentSessionFilter will be created, and a ConcurrentSessionControlAuthenticationStrategy will be used with the SessionManagementFilter. If a form-login element has been declared, the strategy object will also be injected into the created authentication filter. An instance of SessionRegistry (a SessionRegistryImpl instance unless the user wishes to use a custom bean) will be created for use by the strategy.

Parent Elements of <concurrency-control>
<concurrency-control> Attributes
  • error-if-maximum-exceeded If set to "true" a SessionAuthenticationException will be raised when a user attempts to exceed the maximum allowed number of sessions. The default behaviour is to expire the original session.
  • expired-url The URL a user will be redirected to if they attempt to use a session which has been "expired" by the concurrent session controller because the user has exceeded the number of allowed sessions and has logged in again elsewhere. Should be set unless exception-if-maximum-exceeded is set. If no value is supplied, an expiry message will just be written directly back to the response.
  • expired-url Allows injection of the ExpiredSessionStrategy instance used by the ConcurrentSessionFilter
  • max-sessions Maps to the maximumSessions property of ConcurrentSessionControlAuthenticationStrategy. Specify -1 as the value to support unlimited sessions.
  • session-registry-alias It can also be useful to have a reference to the internal session registry for use in your own beans or an admin interface. You can expose the internal bean using the session-registry-alias attribute, giving it a name that you can use elsewhere in your configuration.
  • session-registry-ref The user can supply their own SessionRegistry implementation using the session-registry-ref attribute. The other concurrent session control beans will be wired up to use it.

<x509>

Adds support for X.509 authentication. An X509AuthenticationFilter will be added to the stack and an Http403ForbiddenEntryPoint bean will be created. The latter will only be used if no other authentication mechanisms are in use (its only functionality is to return an HTTP 403 error code). A PreAuthenticatedAuthenticationProvider will also be created which delegates the loading of user authorities to a UserDetailsService.

Parent Elements of <x509>
<x509> Attributes
  • authentication-details-source-ref A reference to an AuthenticationDetailsSource
  • subject-principal-regex Defines a regular expression which will be used to extract the username from the certificate (for use with the UserDetailsService).
  • user-service-ref Allows a specific UserDetailsService to be used with X.509 in the case where multiple instances are configured. If not set, an attempt will be made to locate a suitable instance automatically and use that.

<filter-chain-map>

Used to explicitly configure a FilterChainProxy instance with a FilterChainMap

<filter-chain-map> Attributes
  • request-matcher Defines the strategy to use for matching incoming requests. Currently the options are 'ant' (for ant path patterns), 'regex' for regular expressions and 'ciRegex' for case-insensitive regular expressions.
Child Elements of <filter-chain-map>

<filter-chain>

Used within to define a specific URL pattern and the list of filters which apply to the URLs matching that pattern. When multiple filter-chain elements are assembled in a list in order to configure a FilterChainProxy, the most specific patterns must be placed at the top of the list, with most general ones at the bottom.

Parent Elements of <filter-chain>
<filter-chain> Attributes
  • filters A comma separated list of references to Spring beans that implement Filter. The value "none" means that no Filter should be used for this FilterChain.
  • pattern A pattern that creates RequestMatcher in combination with the request-matcher
  • request-matcher-ref A reference to a RequestMatcher that will be used to determine if any Filter from the filters attribute should be invoked.

<filter-security-metadata-source>

Used to explicitly configure a FilterSecurityMetadataSource bean for use with a FilterSecurityInterceptor. Usually only needed if you are configuring a FilterChainProxy explicitly, rather than using the<http> element. The intercept-url elements used should only contain pattern, method and access attributes. Any others will result in a configuration error.

<filter-security-metadata-source> Attributes
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • request-matcher Defines the strategy use for matching incoming requests. Currently the options are 'ant' (for ant path patterns), 'regex' for regular expressions and 'ciRegex' for case-insensitive regular expressions.
  • use-expressions Enables the use of expressions in the 'access' attributes in <intercept-url> elements rather than the traditional list of configuration attributes. Defaults to 'true'. If enabled, each attribute should contain a single Boolean expression. If the expression evaluates to 'true', access will be granted.
Child Elements of <filter-security-metadata-source>

20.2.2 WebSocket Security

Spring Security 4.0+ provides support for authorizing messages. One concrete example of where this is useful is to provide authorization in WebSocket based applications.

<websocket-message-broker>

The websocket-message-broker element has two different modes. If the [email protected] is not specified, then it will do the following things:

  • Ensure that any SimpAnnotationMethodMessageHandler has the AuthenticationPrincipalArgumentResolver registered as a custom argument resolver. This allows the use of @AuthenticationPrincipal to resolve the principal of the current Authentication
  • Ensures that the SecurityContextChannelInterceptor is automatically registered for the clientInboundChannel. This populates the SecurityContextHolder with the user that is found in the Message
  • Ensures that a ChannelSecurityInterceptor is registered with the clientInboundChannel. This allows authorization rules to be specified for a message.
  • Ensures that a CsrfChannelInterceptor is registered with the clientInboundChannel. This ensures that only requests from the original domain are enabled.
  • Ensures that a CsrfTokenHandshakeInterceptor is registered with WebSocketHttpRequestHandler, TransportHandlingSockJsService, or DefaultSockJsService. This ensures that the expected CsrfToken from the HttpServletRequest is copied into the WebSocket Session attributes.

If additional control is necessary, the id can be specified and a ChannelSecurityInterceptor will be assigned to the specified id. All the wiring with Spring’s messaging infrastructure can then be done manually. This is more cumbersome, but provides greater control over the configuration.

<websocket-message-broker> Attributes
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the ChannelSecurityInterceptor bean elsewhere in the context. If specified, Spring Security requires explicit configuration within Spring Messaging. If not specified, Spring Security will automatically integrate with the messaging infrastructure as described in the section called “<websocket-message-broker>”
  • same-origin-disabled Disables the requirement for CSRF token to be present in the Stomp headers (default false). Changing the default is useful if it is necessary to allow other origins to make SockJS connections.
Child Elements of <websocket-message-broker>

<intercept-message>

Defines an authorization rule for a message.

Parent Elements of <intercept-message>
<intercept-message> Attributes
  • pattern An ant based pattern that matches on the Message destination. For example, "/" matches any Message with a destination; "/admin/" matches any Message that has a destination that starts with "/admin/**".
  • type The type of message to match on. Valid values are defined in SimpMessageType (i.e. CONNECT, CONNECT_ACK, HEARTBEAT, MESSAGE, SUBSCRIBE, UNSUBSCRIBE, DISCONNECT, DISCONNECT_ACK, OTHER).
  • access The expression used to secure the Message. For example, "denyAll" will deny access to all of the matching Messages; "permitAll" will grant access to all of the matching Messages; "hasRole('ADMIN') requires the current user to have the role 'ROLE_ADMIN' for the matching Messages.

20.2.3 Authentication Services

Before Spring Security 3.0, an AuthenticationManager was automatically registered internally. Now you must register one explicitly using the <authentication-manager> element. This creates an instance of Spring Security’s ProviderManager class, which needs to be configured with a list of one or more AuthenticationProvider instances. These can either be created using syntax elements provided by the namespace, or they can be standard bean definitions, marked for addition to the list using the authentication-provider element.

<authentication-manager>

Every Spring Security application which uses the namespace must have include this element somewhere. It is responsible for registering the AuthenticationManager which provides authentication services to the application. All elements which create AuthenticationProvider instances should be children of this element.

<authentication-manager> Attributes
  • alias This attribute allows you to define an alias name for the internal instance for use in your own configuration. Its use is described in thenamespace introduction.
  • erase-credentials If set to true, the AuthenticationManager will attempt to clear any credentials data in the returned Authentication object, once the user has been authenticated. Literally it maps to the eraseCredentialsAfterAuthentication property of the ProviderManager. This is discussed in the Core Services chapter.
  • id This attribute allows you to define an id for the internal instance for use in your own configuration. It is the same as the alias element, but provides a more consistent experience with elements that use the id attribute.
Child Elements of <authentication-manager>

<authentication-provider>

Unless used with a ref attribute, this element is shorthand for configuring a DaoAuthenticationProvider. DaoAuthenticationProvider loads user information from a UserDetailsService and compares the username/password combination with the values supplied at login. The UserDetailsService instance can be defined either by using an available namespace element (jdbc-user-service or by using the user-service-ref attribute to point to a bean defined elsewhere in the application context). You can find examples of these variations in the namespace introduction.

Parent Elements of <authentication-provider>
<authentication-provider> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements AuthenticationProvider.

If you have written your own AuthenticationProvider implementation (or want to configure one of Spring Security’s own implementations as a traditional bean for some reason, then you can use the following syntax to add it to the internal list of ProviderManager:

<security:authentication-manager>
<security:authentication-provider ref="myAuthenticationProvider" />
</security:authentication-manager>
<bean id="myAuthenticationProvider" class="com.something.MyAuthenticationProvider"/>
  • user-service-ref A reference to a bean that implements UserDetailsService that may be created using the standard bean element or the custom user-service element.
Child Elements of <authentication-provider>

<jdbc-user-service>

Causes creation of a JDBC-based UserDetailsService.

<jdbc-user-service> Attributes
  • authorities-by-username-query An SQL statement to query for a user’s granted authorities given a username.

The default is

select username, authority from authorities where username = ?
  • cache-ref Defines a reference to a cache for use with a UserDetailsService.
  • data-source-ref The bean ID of the DataSource which provides the required tables.
  • group-authorities-by-username-query An SQL statement to query user’s group authorities given a username. The default is

    select
    g.id, g.group_name, ga.authority
    from
    groups g, group_members gm, group_authorities ga
    where
    gm.username = ? and g.id = ga.group_id and g.id = gm.group_id
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • role-prefix A non-empty string prefix that will be added to role strings loaded from persistent storage (default is "ROLE_"). Use the value "none" for no prefix in cases where the default is non-empty.
  • users-by-username-query An SQL statement to query a username, password, and enabled status given a username. The default is

    select username, password, enabled from users where username = ?

<password-encoder>

Authentication providers can optionally be configured to use a password encoder as described in the namespace introduction. This will result in the bean being injected with the appropriate PasswordEncoder instance.

Parent Elements of <password-encoder>
<password-encoder> Attributes
  • hash Defines the hashing algorithm used on user passwords. We recommend strongly against using MD4, as it is a very weak hashing algorithm.
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements PasswordEncoder.

<user-service>

Creates an in-memory UserDetailsService from a properties file or a list of "user" child elements. Usernames are converted to lower-case internally to allow for case-insensitive lookups, so this should not be used if case-sensitivity is required.

<user-service> Attributes
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • properties The location of a Properties file where each line is in the format of

    username=password,grantedAuthority[,grantedAuthority][,enabled|disabled]
Child Elements of <user-service>

<user>

Represents a user in the application.

Parent Elements of <user>
<user> Attributes
  • authorities One of more authorities granted to the user. Separate authorities with a comma (but no space). For example, "ROLE_USER,ROLE_ADMINISTRATOR"
  • disabled Can be set to "true" to mark an account as disabled and unusable.
  • locked Can be set to "true" to mark an account as locked and unusable.
  • name The username assigned to the user.
  • password The password assigned to the user. This may be hashed if the corresponding authentication provider supports hashing (remember to set the "hash" attribute of the "user-service" element). This attribute be omitted in the case where the data will not be used for authentication, but only for accessing authorities. If omitted, the namespace will generate a random value, preventing its accidental use for authentication. Cannot be empty.

20.2.4 Method Security

<global-method-security>

This element is the primary means of adding support for securing methods on Spring Security beans. Methods can be secured by the use of annotations (defined at the interface or class level) or by defining a set of pointcuts as child elements, using AspectJ syntax.

<global-method-security> Attributes
  • access-decision-manager-ref Method security uses the same AccessDecisionManager configuration as web security, but this can be overridden using this attribute. By default an AffirmativeBased implementation is used for with a RoleVoter and an AuthenticatedVoter.
  • authentication-manager-ref A reference to an AuthenticationManager that should be used for method security.
  • jsr250-annotations Specifies whether JSR-250 style attributes are to be used (for example "RolesAllowed"). This will require the javax.annotation.security classes on the classpath. Setting this to true also adds a Jsr250Voter to the AccessDecisionManager, so you need to make sure you do this if you are using a custom implementation and want to use these annotations.
  • metadata-source-ref An external MethodSecurityMetadataSource instance can be supplied which will take priority over other sources (such as the default annotations).
  • mode This attribute can be set to "aspectj" to specify that AspectJ should be used instead of the default Spring AOP. Secured methods must be woven with the AnnotationSecurityAspect from the spring-security-aspects module.

It is important to note that AspectJ follows Java’s rule that annotations on interfaces are not inherited. This means that methods that define the Security annotations on the interface will not be secured. Instead, you must place the Security annotation on the class when using AspectJ.

  • order Allows the advice "order" to be set for the method security interceptor.
  • pre-post-annotations Specifies whether the use of Spring Security’s pre and post invocation annotations (@PreFilter, @PreAuthorize, @PostFilter, @PostAuthorize) should be enabled for this application context. Defaults to "disabled".
  • proxy-target-class If true, class based proxying will be used instead of interface based proxying.
  • run-as-manager-ref A reference to an optional RunAsManager implementation which will be used by the configured MethodSecurityInterceptor
  • secured-annotations Specifies whether the use of Spring Security’s @Secured annotations should be enabled for this application context. Defaults to "disabled".

<after-invocation-provider>

This element can be used to decorate an AfterInvocationProvider for use by the security interceptor maintained by the <global-method-security> namespace. You can define zero or more of these within the global-method-security element, each with a ref attribute pointing to an AfterInvocationProvider bean instance within your application context.

Parent Elements of <after-invocation-provider>
<after-invocation-provider> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean that implements AfterInvocationProvider.

<pre-post-annotation-handling>

Allows the default expression-based mechanism for handling Spring Security’s pre and post invocation annotations (@PreFilter, @PreAuthorize, @PostFilter, @PostAuthorize) to be replaced entirely. Only applies if these annotations are enabled.

Parent Elements of <pre-post-annotation-handling>
Child Elements of <pre-post-annotation-handling>

<invocation-attribute-factory>

Defines the PrePostInvocationAttributeFactory instance which is used to generate pre and post invocation metadata from the annotated methods.

Parent Elements of <invocation-attribute-factory>
<invocation-attribute-factory> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean Id.

<post-invocation-advice>

Customizes the PostInvocationAdviceProvider with the ref as the PostInvocationAuthorizationAdvice for the <pre-post-annotation-handling> element.

Parent Elements of <post-invocation-advice>
<post-invocation-advice> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean Id.

<pre-invocation-advice>

Customizes the PreInvocationAuthorizationAdviceVoter with the ref as the PreInvocationAuthorizationAdviceVoter for the <pre-post-annotation-handling> element.

Parent Elements of <pre-invocation-advice>
<pre-invocation-advice> Attributes
  • ref Defines a reference to a Spring bean Id.

Securing Methods using

<protect-pointcut> Rather than defining security attributes on an individual method or class basis using the @Secured annotation, you can define cross-cutting security constraints across whole sets of methods and interfaces in your service layer using the <protect-pointcut> element. You can find an example in the namespace introduction.

Parent Elements of <protect-pointcut>
<protect-pointcut> Attributes
  • access Access configuration attributes list that applies to all methods matching the pointcut, e.g. "ROLE_A,ROLE_B"
  • expression An AspectJ expression, including the 'execution' keyword. For example, 'execution(int com.foo.TargetObject.countLength(String))' (without the quotes).

<intercept-methods>

Can be used inside a bean definition to add a security interceptor to the bean and set up access configuration attributes for the bean’s methods

<intercept-methods> Attributes
  • access-decision-manager-ref Optional AccessDecisionManager bean ID to be used by the created method security interceptor.
Child Elements of <intercept-methods>

<method-security-metadata-source>

Creates a MethodSecurityMetadataSource instance

<method-security-metadata-source> Attributes
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • use-expressions Enables the use of expressions in the 'access' attributes in <intercept-url> elements rather than the traditional list of configuration attributes. Defaults to 'false'. If enabled, each attribute should contain a single Boolean expression. If the expression evaluates to 'true', access will be granted.
Child Elements of <method-security-metadata-source>

<protect>

Defines a protected method and the access control configuration attributes that apply to it. We strongly advise you NOT to mix "protect" declarations with any services provided "global-method-security".

<protect> Attributes
  • access Access configuration attributes list that applies to the method, e.g. "ROLE_A,ROLE_B".
  • method A method name

20.2.5 LDAP Namespace Options

LDAP is covered in some details in its own chapter. We will expand on that here with some explanation of how the namespace options map to Spring beans. The LDAP implementation uses Spring LDAP extensively, so some familiarity with that project’s API may be useful.

Defining the LDAP Server using the

<ldap-server> Element This element sets up a Spring LDAP ContextSource for use by the other LDAP beans, defining the location of the LDAP server and other information (such as a username and password, if it doesn’t allow anonymous access) for connecting to it. It can also be used to create an embedded server for testing. Details of the syntax for both options are covered in the LDAP chapter. The actual ContextSource implementation is DefaultSpringSecurityContextSource which extends Spring LDAP’s LdapContextSource class. The manager-dn and manager-password attributes map to the latter’s userDn and password properties respectively.

If you only have one server defined in your application context, the other LDAP namespace-defined beans will use it automatically. Otherwise, you can give the element an "id" attribute and refer to it from other namespace beans using the server-ref attribute. This is actually the bean id of the ContextSource instance, if you want to use it in other traditional Spring beans.

<ldap-server> Attributes
  • mode Explicitly specifies which embedded ldap server should use. Values are apacheds and unboundid. By default, it will depends if the library is available in the classpath.
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • ldif Explicitly specifies an ldif file resource to load into an embedded LDAP server. The ldiff is should be a Spring resource pattern (i.e. classpath:init.ldiff). The default is classpath*:*.ldiff
  • manager-dn Username (DN) of the "manager" user identity which will be used to authenticate to a (non-embedded) LDAP server. If omitted, anonymous access will be used.
  • manager-password The password for the manager DN. This is required if the manager-dn is specified.
  • port Specifies an IP port number. Used to configure an embedded LDAP server, for example. The default value is 33389.
  • root Optional root suffix for the embedded LDAP server. Default is "dc=springframework,dc=org"
  • url Specifies the ldap server URL when not using the embedded LDAP server.

<ldap-authentication-provider>

This element is shorthand for the creation of an LdapAuthenticationProvider instance. By default this will be configured with a BindAuthenticator instance and a DefaultAuthoritiesPopulator. As with all namespace authentication providers, it must be included as a child of the authentication-provider element.

Parent Elements of <ldap-authentication-provider>
<ldap-authentication-provider> Attributes
  • group-role-attribute The LDAP attribute name which contains the role name which will be used within Spring Security. Maps to the DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator's groupRoleAttribute property. Defaults to "cn".
  • group-search-base Search base for group membership searches. Maps to the DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator's groupSearchBase constructor argument. Defaults to "" (searching from the root).
  • group-search-filter Group search filter. Maps to the DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator's groupSearchFilter property. Defaults to (uniqueMember={0}). The substituted parameter is the DN of the user.
  • role-prefix A non-empty string prefix that will be added to role strings loaded from persistent. Maps to the DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator's rolePrefix property. Defaults to "ROLE_". Use the value "none" for no prefix in cases where the default is non-empty.
  • server-ref The optional server to use. If omitted, and a default LDAP server is registered (using <ldap-server> with no Id), that server will be used.
  • user-context-mapper-ref Allows explicit customization of the loaded user object by specifying a UserDetailsContextMapper bean which will be called with the context information from the user’s directory entry
  • user-details-class Allows the objectClass of the user entry to be specified. If set, the framework will attempt to load standard attributes for the defined class into the returned UserDetails object
  • user-dn-pattern If your users are at a fixed location in the directory (i.e. you can work out the DN directly from the username without doing a directory search), you can use this attribute to map directly to the DN. It maps directly to the userDnPatterns property of AbstractLdapAuthenticator. The value is a specific pattern used to build the user’s DN, for example "uid={0},ou=people". The key "{0}" must be present and will be substituted with the username.
  • user-search-base Search base for user searches. Defaults to "". Only used with a 'user-search-filter'.

    If you need to perform a search to locate the user in the directory, then you can set these attributes to control the search. The BindAuthenticator will be configured with a FilterBasedLdapUserSearch and the attribute values map directly to the first two arguments of that bean’s constructor. If these attributes aren’t set and no user-dn-pattern has been supplied as an alternative, then the default search values of user-search-filter="(uid={0})" and user-search-base="" will be used.

  • user-search-filter The LDAP filter used to search for users (optional). For example "(uid={0})". The substituted parameter is the user’s login name.

    If you need to perform a search to locate the user in the directory, then you can set these attributes to control the search. The BindAuthenticator will be configured with a FilterBasedLdapUserSearch and the attribute values map directly to the first two arguments of that bean’s constructor. If these attributes aren’t set and no user-dn-pattern has been supplied as an alternative, then the default search values of user-search-filter="(uid={0})" and user-search-base="" will be used.

Child Elements of <ldap-authentication-provider>

<password-compare>

This is used as child element to <ldap-provider> and switches the authentication strategy from BindAuthenticator to PasswordComparisonAuthenticator.

Parent Elements of <password-compare>
<password-compare> Attributes
  • hash Defines the hashing algorithm used on user passwords. We recommend strongly against using MD4, as it is a very weak hashing algorithm.
  • password-attribute The attribute in the directory which contains the user password. Defaults to "userPassword".
Child Elements of <password-compare>

<ldap-user-service>

This element configures an LDAP UserDetailsService. The class used is LdapUserDetailsService which is a combination of a FilterBasedLdapUserSearch and a DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator. The attributes it supports have the same usage as in <ldap-provider>.

<ldap-user-service> Attributes
  • cache-ref Defines a reference to a cache for use with a UserDetailsService.
  • group-role-attribute The LDAP attribute name which contains the role name which will be used within Spring Security. Defaults to "cn".
  • group-search-base Search base for group membership searches. Defaults to "" (searching from the root).
  • group-search-filter Group search filter. Defaults to (uniqueMember={0}). The substituted parameter is the DN of the user.
  • id A bean identifier, used for referring to the bean elsewhere in the context.
  • role-prefix A non-empty string prefix that will be added to role strings loaded from persistent storage (e.g. "ROLE_"). Use the value "none" for no prefix in cases where the default is non-empty.
  • server-ref The optional server to use. If omitted, and a default LDAP server is registered (using <ldap-server> with no Id), that server will be used.
  • user-context-mapper-ref Allows explicit customization of the loaded user object by specifying a UserDetailsContextMapper bean which will be called with the context information from the user’s directory entry
  • user-details-class Allows the objectClass of the user entry to be specified. If set, the framework will attempt to load standard attributes for the defined class into the returned UserDetails object
  • user-search-base Search base for user searches. Defaults to "". Only used with a 'user-search-filter'.
  • user-search-filter The LDAP filter used to search for users (optional). For example "(uid={0})". The substituted parameter is the user’s login name.

20.3 Spring Security Dependencies

This appendix provides a reference of the modules in Spring Security and the additional dependencies that they require in order to function in a running application. We don’t include dependencies that are only used when building or testing Spring Security itself. Nor do we include transitive dependencies which are required by external dependencies.

The version of Spring required is listed on the project website, so the specific versions are omitted for Spring dependencies below. Note that some of the dependencies listed as "optional" below may still be required for other non-security functionality in a Spring application. Also dependencies listed as "optional" may not actually be marked as such in the project’s Maven POM files if they are used in most applications. They are "optional" only in the sense that you don’t need them unless you are using the specified functionality.

Where a module depends on another Spring Security module, the non-optional dependencies of the module it depends on are also assumed to be required and are not listed separately.

20.3.1 spring-security-core

The core module must be included in any project using Spring Security.

Table 20.1. Core Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

ehcache

1.6.2

Required if the Ehcache-based user cache implementation is used (optional).

spring-aop

 

Method security is based on Spring AOP

spring-beans

 

Required for Spring configuration

spring-expression

 

Required for expression-based method security (optional)

spring-jdbc

 

Required if using a database to store user data (optional).

spring-tx

 

Required if using a database to store user data (optional).

aspectjrt

1.6.10

Required if using AspectJ support (optional).

jsr250-api

1.0

Required if you are using JSR-250 method-security annotations (optional).


20.3.2 spring-security-remoting

This module is typically required in web applications which use the Servlet API.

Table 20.2. Remoting Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-web

 

Required for clients which use HTTP remoting support.


20.3.3 spring-security-web

This module is typically required in web applications which use the Servlet API.

Table 20.3. Web Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-web

 

Spring web support classes are used extensively.

spring-jdbc

 

Required for JDBC-based persistent remember-me token repository (optional).

spring-tx

 

Required by remember-me persistent token repository implementations (optional).


20.3.4 spring-security-ldap

This module is only required if you are using LDAP authentication.

Table 20.4. LDAP Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-ldap-core

1.3.0

LDAP support is based on Spring LDAP.

spring-tx

 

Data exception classes are required.

apache-ds [1]

1.5.5

Required if you are using an embedded LDAP server (optional).

shared-ldap

0.9.15

Required if you are using an embedded LDAP server (optional).

ldapsdk

4.1

Mozilla LdapSDK. Used for decoding LDAP password policy controls if you are using password-policy functionality with OpenLDAP, for example.

[1] The modules apacheds-core, apacheds-core-entry, apacheds-protocol-shared, apacheds-protocol-ldap and apacheds-server-jndi are required.


20.3.5 spring-security-config

This module is required if you are using Spring Security namespace configuration.

Table 20.5. Config Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-security-web

 

Required if you are using any web-related namespace configuration (optional).

spring-security-ldap

 

Required if you are using the LDAP namespace options (optional).

spring-security-openid

 

Required if you are using OpenID authentication (optional).

aspectjweaver

1.6.10

Required if using the protect-pointcut namespace syntax (optional).


20.3.6 spring-security-acl

The ACL module.

Table 20.6. ACL Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

ehcache

1.6.2

Required if the Ehcache-based ACL cache implementation is used (optional if you are using your own implementation).

spring-jdbc

 

Required if you are using the default JDBC-based AclService (optional if you implement your own).

spring-tx

 

Required if you are using the default JDBC-based AclService (optional if you implement your own).


20.3.7 spring-security-cas

The CAS module provides integration with JA-SIG CAS.

Table 20.7. CAS Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-security-web

  

cas-client-core

3.1.12

The JA-SIG CAS Client. This is the basis of the Spring Security integration.

ehcache

1.6.2

Required if you are using the Ehcache-based ticket cache (optional).


20.3.8 spring-security-openid

The OpenID module.

Table 20.8. OpenID Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-security-web

  

openid4java-nodeps

0.9.6

Spring Security’s OpenID integration uses OpenID4Java.

httpclient

4.1.1

openid4java-nodeps depends on HttpClient 4.

guice

2.0

openid4java-nodeps depends on Guice 2.


20.3.9 spring-security-taglibs

Provides Spring Security’s JSP tag implementations.

Table 20.9. Taglib Dependencies

DependencyVersionDescription

spring-security-core

  

spring-security-web

  

spring-security-acl

 

Required if you are using the accesscontrollist tag or hasPermission() expressions with ACLs (optional).

spring-expression

 

Required if you are using SPEL expressions in your tag access constraints.


20.4 Proxy Server Configuration

When using a proxy server it is important to ensure that you have configured your application properly. For example, many applications will have a load balancer that responds to request for https://example.com/ by forwarding the request to an application server at https://192.168.1:8080 Without proper configuration, the application server will not know that the load balancer exists and treat the request as though https://192.168.1:8080 was requested by the client.

To fix this you can use RFC 7239 to specify that a load balancer is being used. To make the application aware of this, you need to either configure your application server aware of the X-Forwarded headers. For example Tomcat uses the RemoteIpValve and Jetty uses ForwardedRequestCustomizer. Alternatively, Spring 4.3+ users can leverage ForwardedHeaderFilter.

Spring Boot users may use the server.use-forward-headers property to configure the application. See the Spring Boot documentation for further details.

20.5 Spring Security FAQ

20.5.1 General Questions

Will Spring Security take care of all my application security requirements?

Spring Security provides you with a very flexible framework for your authentication and authorization requirements, but there are many other considerations for building a secure application that are outside its scope. Web applications are vulnerable to all kinds of attacks which you should be familiar with, preferably before you start development so you can design and code with them in mind from the beginning. Check out thehttp://www.owasp.org/[OWASP web site] for information on the major issues facing web application developers and the countermeasures you can use against them.

Why not just use web.xml security?

Let’s assume you’re developing an enterprise application based on Spring. There are four security concerns you typically need to address: authentication, web request security, service layer security (i.e. your methods that implement business logic), and domain object instance security (i.e. different domain objects have different permissions). With these typical requirements in mind:

  1. Authentication: The servlet specification provides an approach to authentication. However, you will need to configure the container to perform authentication which typically requires editing of container-specific "realm" settings. This makes a non-portable configuration, and if you need to write an actual Java class to implement the container’s authentication interface, it becomes even more non-portable. With Spring Security you achieve complete portability - right down to the WAR level. Also, Spring Security offers a choice of production-proven authentication providers and mechanisms, meaning you can switch your authentication approaches at deployment time. This is particularly valuable for software vendors writing products that need to work in an unknown target environment.
  2. Web request security: The servlet specification provides an approach to secure your request URIs. However, these URIs can only be expressed in the servlet specification’s own limited URI path format. Spring Security provides a far more comprehensive approach. For instance, you can use Ant paths or regular expressions, you can consider parts of the URI other than simply the requested page (e.g. you can consider HTTP GET parameters) and you can implement your own runtime source of configuration data. This means your web request security can be dynamically changed during the actual execution of your webapp.
  3. Service layer and domain object security: The absence of support in the servlet specification for services layer security or domain object instance security represent serious limitations for multi-tiered applications. Typically developers either ignore these requirements, or implement security logic within their MVC controller code (or even worse, inside the views). There are serious disadvantages with this approach:

    1. Separation of concerns: Authorization is a crosscutting concern and should be implemented as such. MVC controllers or views implementing authorization code makes it more difficult to test both the controller and authorization logic, more difficult to debug, and will often lead to code duplication.
    2. Support for rich clients and web services: If an additional client type must ultimately be supported, any authorization code embedded within the web layer is non-reusable. It should be considered that Spring remoting exporters only export service layer beans (not MVC controllers). As such authorization logic needs to be located in the services layer to support a multitude of client types.
    3. Layering issues: An MVC controller or view is simply the incorrect architectural layer to implement authorization decisions concerning services layer methods or domain object instances. Whilst the Principal may be passed to the services layer to enable it to make the authorization decision, doing so would introduce an additional argument on every services layer method. A more elegant approach is to use a ThreadLocal to hold the Principal, although this would likely increase development time to a point where it would become more economical (on a cost-benefit basis) to simply use a dedicated security framework.
    4. Authorisation code quality: It is often said of web frameworks that they "make it easier to do the right things, and harder to do the wrong things". Security frameworks are the same, because they are designed in an abstract manner for a wide range of purposes. Writing your own authorization code from scratch does not provide the "design check" a framework would offer, and in-house authorization code will typically lack the improvements that emerge from widespread deployment, peer review and new versions.

For simple applications, servlet specification security may just be enough. Although when considered within the context of web container portability, configuration requirements, limited web request security flexibility, and non-existent services layer and domain object instance security, it becomes clear why developers often look to alternative solutions.

What Java and Spring Framework versions are required?

Spring Security 3.0 and 3.1 require at least JDK 1.5 and also require Spring 3.0.3 as a minimum. Ideally you should be using the latest release versions to avoid problems.

Spring Security 2.0.x requires a minimum JDK version of 1.4 and is built against Spring 2.0.x. It should also be compatible with applications using Spring 2.5.x.

I’m new to Spring Security and I need to build an application that supports CAS single sign-on over HTTPS, while allowing Basic authentication locally for certain URLs, authenticating against multiple back end user information sources (LDAP and JDBC). I’ve copied some configuration files I found but it doesn’t work.

What could be wrong?

Or subsititute an alternative complex scenario…​

Realistically, you need an understanding of the technolgies you are intending to use before you can successfully build applications with them. Security is complicated. Setting up a simple configuration using a login form and some hard-coded users using Spring Security’s namespace is reasonably straightforward. Moving to using a backed JDBC database is also easy enough. But if you try and jump straight to a complicated deployment scenario like this you will almost certainly be frustrated. There is a big jump in the learning curve required to set up systems like CAS, configure LDAP servers and install SSL certificates properly. So you need to take things one step at a time.

From a Spring Security perspective, the first thing you should do is follow the "Getting Started" guide on the web site. This will take you through a series of steps to get up and running and get some idea of how the framework operates. If you are using other technologies which you aren’t familiar with then you should do some research and try to make sure you can use them in isolation before combining them in a complex system.

20.5.2 Common Problems

  1. Authentication

  2. Session Management

  3. Miscellaneous

When I try to log in, I get an error message that says "Bad Credentials". What’s wrong?

This means that authentication has failed. It doesn’t say why, as it is good practice to avoid giving details which might help an attacker guess account names or passwords.

This also means that if you ask this question in the forum, you will not get an answer unless you provide additional information. As with any issue you should check the output from the debug log, note any exception stacktraces and related messages. Step through the code in a debugger to see where the authentication fails and why. Write a test case which exercises your authentication configuration outside of the application. More often than not, the failure is due to a difference in the password data stored in a database and that entered by the user. If you are using hashed passwords, make sure the value stored in your database is exactly the same as the value produced by the PasswordEncoder configured in your application.

My application goes into an "endless loop" when I try to login, what’s going on?

A common user problem with infinite loop and redirecting to the login page is caused by accidently configuring the login page as a "secured" resource. Make sure your configuration allows anonymous access to the login page, either by excluding it from the security filter chain or marking it as requiring ROLE_ANONYMOUS.

If your AccessDecisionManager includes an AuthenticatedVoter, you can use the attribute "IS_AUTHENTICATED_ANONYMOUSLY". This is automatically available if you are using the standard namespace configuration setup.

From Spring Security 2.0.1 onwards, when you are using namespace-based configuration, a check will be made on loading the application context and a warning message logged if your login page appears to be protected.

I get an exception with the message "Access is denied (user is anonymous);". What’s wrong?

This is a debug level message which occurs the first time an anonymous user attempts to access a protected resource.

DEBUG [ExceptionTranslationFilter] - Access is denied (user is anonymous); redirecting to authentication entry point
org.springframework.security.AccessDeniedException: Access is denied
at org.springframework.security.vote.AffirmativeBased.decide(AffirmativeBased.java:68)
at org.springframework.security.intercept.AbstractSecurityInterceptor.beforeInvocation(AbstractSecurityInterceptor.java:262)

It is normal and shouldn’t be anything to worry about.

Why can I still see a secured page even after I’ve logged out of my application?

The most common reason for this is that your browser has cached the page and you are seeing a copy which is being retrieved from the browsers cache. Verify this by checking whether the browser is actually sending the request (check your server access logs, the debug log or use a suitable browser debugging plugin such as "Tamper Data" for Firefox). This has nothing to do with Spring Security and you should configure your application or server to set the appropriate Cache-Control response headers. Note that SSL requests are never cached.

I get an exception with the message "An Authentication object was not found in the SecurityContext". What’s wrong?

This is a another debug level message which occurs the first time an anonymous user attempts to access a protected resource, but when you do not have an AnonymousAuthenticationFilter in your filter chain configuration.

DEBUG [ExceptionTranslationFilter] - Authentication exception occurred; redirecting to authentication entry point
org.springframework.security.AuthenticationCredentialsNotFoundException:
                            An Authentication object was not found in the SecurityContext
at org.springframework.security.intercept.AbstractSecurityInterceptor.credentialsNotFound(AbstractSecurityInterceptor.java:342)
at org.springframework.security.intercept.AbstractSecurityInterceptor.beforeInvocation(AbstractSecurityInterceptor.java:254)

It is normal and shouldn’t be anything to worry about.

I can’t get LDAP authentication to work.

What’s wrong with my configuration?

Note that the permissions for an LDAP directory often do not allow you to read the password for a user. Hence it is often not possible to use the the section called “What is a UserDetailsService and do I need one?” where Spring Security compares the stored password with the one submitted by the user. The most common approach is to use LDAP "bind", which is one of the operations supported by the LDAP protocol. With this approach, Spring Security validates the password by attempting to authenticate to the directory as the user.

The most common problem with LDAP authentication is a lack of knowledge of the directory server tree structure and configuration. This will be different in different companies, so you have to find it out yourself. Before adding a Spring Security LDAP configuration to an application, it’s a good idea to write a simple test using standard Java LDAP code (without Spring Security involved), and make sure you can get that to work first. For example, to authenticate a user, you could use the following code:

@Test
public void ldapAuthenticationIsSuccessful() throws Exception {
        Hashtable<String,String> env = new Hashtable<String,String>();
        env.put(Context.SECURITY_AUTHENTICATION, "simple");
        env.put(Context.SECURITY_PRINCIPAL, "cn=joe,ou=users,dc=mycompany,dc=com");
        env.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, "ldap://mycompany.com:389/dc=mycompany,dc=com");
        env.put(Context.SECURITY_CREDENTIALS, "joespassword");
        env.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, "com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory");

        InitialLdapContext ctx = new InitialLdapContext(env, null);

}

Session Management

Session management issues are a common source of forum questions. If you are developing Java web applications, you should understand how the session is maintained between the servlet container and the user’s browser. You should also understand the difference between secure and non-secure cookies and the implications of using HTTP/HTTPS and switching between the two. Spring Security has nothing to do with maintaining the session or providing session identifiers. This is entirely handled by the servlet container.

I’m using Spring Security’s concurrent session control to prevent users from logging in more than once at a time.

When I open another browser window after logging in, it doesn’t stop me from logging in again. Why can I log in more than once?

Browsers generally maintain a single session per browser instance. You cannot have two separate sessions at once. So if you log in again in another window or tab you are just reauthenticating in the same session. The server doesn’t know anything about tabs, windows or browser instances. All it sees are HTTP requests and it ties those to a particular session according to the value of the JSESSIONID cookie that they contain. When a user authenticates during a session, Spring Security’s concurrent session control checks the number ofother authenticated sessions that they have. If they are already authenticated with the same session, then re-authenticating will have no effect.

Why does the session Id change when I authenticate through Spring Security?

With the default configuration, Spring Security changes the session ID when the user authenticates. If you’re using a Servlet 3.1 or newer container, the session ID is simply changed. If you’re using an older container, Spring Security invalidates the existing session, creates a new session, and transfers the session data to the new session. Changing the session identifier in this manner prevents"session-fixation" attacks. You can find more about this online and in the reference manual.

I’m using Tomcat (or some other servlet container) and have enabled HTTPS for my login page, switching back to HTTP afterwards.

It doesn’t work - I just end up back at the login page after authenticating.

This happens because sessions created under HTTPS, for which the session cookie is marked as "secure", cannot subsequently be used under HTTP. The browser will not send the cookie back to the server and any session state will be lost (including the security context information). Starting a session in HTTP first should work as the session cookie won’t be marked as secure. However, Spring Security’s Session Fixation Protection can interfere with this because it results in a new session ID cookie being sent back to the user’s browser, usually with the secure flag. To get around this, you can disable session fixation protection, but in newer Servlet containers you can also configure session cookies to never use the secure flag. Note that switching between HTTP and HTTPS is not a good idea in general, as any application which uses HTTP at all is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. To be truly secure, the user should begin accessing your site in HTTPS and continue using it until they log out. Even clicking on an HTTPS link from a page accessed over HTTP is potentially risky. If you need more convincing, check out a tool like sslstrip.

I’m not switching between HTTP and HTTPS but my session is still getting lost

Sessions are maintained either by exchanging a session cookie or by adding a jsessionid parameter to URLs (this happens automatically if you are using JSTL to output URLs, or if you call HttpServletResponse.encodeUrl on URLs (before a redirect, for example). If clients have cookies disabled, and you are not rewriting URLs to include the jsessionid, then the session will be lost. Note that the use of cookies is preferred for security reasons, as it does not expose the session information in the URL.

I’m trying to use the concurrent session-control support but it won’t let me log back in, even if I’m sure I’ve logged out and haven’t exceeded the allowed sessions.

Make sure you have added the listener to your web.xml file. It is essential to make sure that the Spring Security session registry is notified when a session is destroyed. Without it, the session information will not be removed from the registry.

<listener>
        <listener-class>org.springframework.security.web.session.HttpSessionEventPublisher</listener-class>
</listener>

Spring Security is creating a session somewhere, even though I’ve configured it not to, by setting the create-session attribute to never.

This usually means that the user’s application is creating a session somewhere, but that they aren’t aware of it. The most common culprit is a JSP. Many people aren’t aware that JSPs create sessions by default. To prevent a JSP from creating a session, add the directive <%@ page session="false" %> to the top of the page.

If you are having trouble working out where a session is being created, you can add some debugging code to track down the location(s). One way to do this would be to add a javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionListener to your application, which calls Thread.dumpStack() in the sessionCreated method.

I get a 403 Forbidden when performing a POST

If an HTTP 403 Forbidden is returned for HTTP POST, but works for HTTP GET then the issue is most likely related to CSRF. Either provide the CSRF Token or disable CSRF protection (not recommended).

I’m forwarding a request to another URL using the RequestDispatcher, but my security constraints aren’t being applied.

Filters are not applied by default to forwards or includes. If you really want the security filters to be applied to forwards and/or includes, then you have to configure these explicitly in your web.xml using the <dispatcher> element, a child element of <filter-mapping>.

I have added Spring Security’s <global-method-security> element to my application context but if I add security annotations to my Spring MVC controller beans (Struts actions etc.) then they don’t seem to have an effect.

In a Spring web application, the application context which holds the Spring MVC beans for the dispatcher servlet is often separate from the main application context. It is often defined in a file called myapp-servlet.xml, where "myapp" is the name assigned to the Spring DispatcherServlet in web.xml. An application can have multiple DispatcherServlets, each with its own isolated application context. The beans in these "child" contexts are not visible to the rest of the application. The"parent" application context is loaded by the ContextLoaderListener you define in your web.xml and is visible to all the child contexts. This parent context is usually where you define your security configuration, including the <global-method-security> element). As a result any security constraints applied to methods in these web beans will not be enforced, since the beans cannot be seen from the DispatcherServlet context. You need to either move the <global-method-security> declaration to the web context or moved the beans you want secured into the main application context.

Generally we would recommend applying method security at the service layer rather than on individual web controllers.

I have a user who has definitely been authenticated, but when I try to access the SecurityContextHolder during some requests, the Authentication is null.

Why can’t I see the user information?

If you have excluded the request from the security filter chain using the attribute filters='none' in the <intercept-url> element that matches the URL pattern, then the SecurityContextHolder will not be populated for that request. Check the debug log to see whether the request is passing through the filter chain. (You are reading the debug log, right?).

The authorize JSP Tag doesn’t respect my method security annotations when using the URL attribute.

Method security will not hide links when using the url attribute in <sec:authorize> because we cannot readily reverse engineer what URL is mapped to what controller endpoint as controllers can rely on headers, current user, etc to determine what method to invoke.

20.5.3 Spring Security Architecture Questions

How do I know which package class X is in?

The best way of locating classes is by installing the Spring Security source in your IDE. The distribution includes source jars for each of the modules the project is divided up into. Add these to your project source path and you can navigate directly to Spring Security classes (Ctrl-Shift-T in Eclipse). This also makes debugging easier and allows you to troubleshoot exceptions by looking directly at the code where they occur to see what’s going on there.

How do the namespace elements map to conventional bean configurations?

There is a general overview of what beans are created by the namespace in the namespace appendix of the reference guide. There is also a detailed blog article called "Behind the Spring Security Namespace" on blog.springsource.com. If want to know the full details then the code is in the spring-security-config module within the Spring Security 3.0 distribution. You should probably read the chapters on namespace parsing in the standard Spring Framework reference documentation first.

What does "ROLE_" mean and why do I need it on my role names?

Spring Security has a voter-based architecture which means that an access decision is made by a series of AccessDecisionVoters. The voters act on the "configuration attributes" which are specified for a secured resource (such as a method invocation). With this approach, not all attributes may be relevant to all voters and a voter needs to know when it should ignore an attribute (abstain) and when it should vote to grant or deny access based on the attribute value. The most common voter is the RoleVoter which by default votes whenever it finds an attribute with the "ROLE_" prefix. It makes a simple comparison of the attribute (such as "ROLE_USER") with the names of the authorities which the current user has been assigned. If it finds a match (they have an authority called "ROLE_USER"), it votes to grant access, otherwise it votes to deny access.

The prefix can be changed by setting the rolePrefix property of RoleVoter. If you only need to use roles in your application and have no need for other custom voters, then you can set the prefix to a blank string, in which case the RoleVoter will treat all attributes as roles.

How do I know which dependencies to add to my application to work with Spring Security?

It will depend on what features you are using and what type of application you are developing. With Spring Security 3.0, the project jars are divided into clearly distinct areas of functionality, so it is straightforward to work out which Spring Security jars you need from your application requirements. All applications will need the spring-security-core jar. If you’re developing a web application, you need the spring-security-web jar. If you’re using security namespace configuration you need the spring-security-config jar, for LDAP support you need the spring-security-ldap jar and so on.

For third-party jars the situation isn’t always quite so obvious. A good starting point is to copy those from one of the pre-built sample applications WEB-INF/lib directories. For a basic application, you can start with the tutorial sample. If you want to use LDAP, with an embedded test server, then use the LDAP sample as a starting point. The reference manual also includeshttp://static.springsource.org/spring-security/site/docs/3.1.x/reference/springsecurity-single.html#appendix-dependencies[an appendix] listing the first-level dependencies for each Spring Security module with some information on whether they are optional and what they are required for.

If you are building your project with maven, then adding the appropriate Spring Security modules as dependencies to your pom.xml will automatically pull in the core jars that the framework requires. Any which are marked as "optional" in the Spring Security POM files will have to be added to your own pom.xml file if you need them.

What dependencies are needed to run an embedded ApacheDS LDAP server?

If you are using Maven, you need to add the folowing to your pom dependencies:

<dependency>
        <groupId>org.apache.directory.server</groupId>
        <artifactId>apacheds-core</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.5</version>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
        <groupId>org.apache.directory.server</groupId>
        <artifactId>apacheds-server-jndi</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.5</version>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

The other required jars should be pulled in transitively.

What is a UserDetailsService and do I need one?

UserDetailsService is a DAO interface for loading data that is specific to a user account. It has no other function other to load that data for use by other components within the framework. It is not responsible for authenticating the user. Authenticating a user with a username/password combination is most commonly performed by the DaoAuthenticationProvider, which is injected with a UserDetailsService to allow it to load the password (and other data) for a user in order to compare it with the submitted value. Note that if you are using LDAP, this approach may not work.

If you want to customize the authentication process then you should implement AuthenticationProvider yourself. See this blog article for an example integrating Spring Security authentication with Google App Engine.

20.5.4 Common "Howto" Requests

I need to login in with more information than just the username.

How do I add support for extra login fields (e.g. a company name)?

This question comes up repeatedly in the Spring Security forum so you will find more information there by searching the archives (or through google).

The submitted login information is processed by an instance of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter. You will need to customize this class to handle the extra data field(s). One option is to use your own customized authentication token class (rather than the standard UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken), another is simply to concatenate the extra fields with the username (for example, using a ":" as the separator) and pass them in the username property of UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken.

You will also need to customize the actual authentication process. If you are using a custom authentication token class, for example, you will have to write an AuthenticationProvider to handle it (or extend the standard DaoAuthenticationProvider). If you have concatenated the fields, you can implement your own UserDetailsService which splits them up and loads the appropriate user data for authentication.

How do I apply different intercept-url constraints where only the fragment value of the requested URLs differs (e.g./foo#bar and /foo#blah?

You can’t do this, since the fragment is not transmitted from the browser to the server. The URLs above are identical from the server’s perspective. This is a common question from GWT users.

How do I access the user’s IP Address (or other web-request data) in a UserDetailsService?

Obviously you can’t (without resorting to something like thread-local variables) since the only information supplied to the interface is the username. Instead of implementing UserDetailsService, you should implement AuthenticationProvider directly and extract the information from the supplied Authentication token.

In a standard web setup, the getDetails() method on the Authentication object will return an instance of WebAuthenticationDetails. If you need additional information, you can inject a custom AuthenticationDetailsSource into the authentication filter you are using. If you are using the namespace, for example with the <form-login> element, then you should remove this element and replace it with a <custom-filter> declaration pointing to an explicitly configured UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter.

How do I access the HttpSession from a UserDetailsService?

You can’t, since the UserDetailsService has no awareness of the servlet API. If you want to store custom user data, then you should customize the UserDetails object which is returned. This can then be accessed at any point, via the thread-local SecurityContextHolder. A call to SecurityContextHolder.getContext().getAuthentication().getPrincipal() will return this custom object.

If you really need to access the session, then it must be done by customizing the web tier.

How do I access the user’s password in a UserDetailsService?

You can’t (and shouldn’t). You are probably misunderstanding its purpose. See "What is a UserDetailsService?" above.

How do I define the secured URLs within an application dynamically?

People often ask about how to store the mapping between secured URLs and security metadata attributes in a database, rather than in the application context.

The first thing you should ask yourself is if you really need to do this. If an application requires securing, then it also requires that the security be tested thoroughly based on a defined policy. It may require auditing and acceptance testing before being rolled out into a production environment. A security-conscious organization should be aware that the benefits of their diligent testing process could be wiped out instantly by allowing the security settings to be modified at runtime by changing a row or two in a configuration database. If you have taken this into account (perhaps using multiple layers of security within your application) then Spring Security allows you to fully customize the source of security metadata. You can make it fully dynamic if you choose.

Both method and web security are protected by subclasses of AbstractSecurityInterceptor which is configured with a SecurityMetadataSource from which it obtains the metadata for a particular method or filter invocation. For web security, the interceptor class is FilterSecurityInterceptor and it uses the marker interface FilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource. The "secured object" type it operates on is a FilterInvocation. The default implementation which is used (both in the namespace <http> and when configuring the interceptor explicitly, stores the list of URL patterns and their corresponding list of "configuration attributes" (instances of ConfigAttribute) in an in-memory map.

To load the data from an alternative source, you must be using an explicitly declared security filter chain (typically Spring Security’s FilterChainProxy) in order to customize the FilterSecurityInterceptor bean. You can’t use the namespace. You would then implement FilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource to load the data as you please for a particular FilterInvocation [18]. A very basic outline would look something like this:

public class MyFilterSecurityMetadataSource implements FilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource {

    public List<ConfigAttribute> getAttributes(Object object) {
        FilterInvocation fi = (FilterInvocation) object;
            String url = fi.getRequestUrl();
            String httpMethod = fi.getRequest().getMethod();
            List<ConfigAttribute> attributes = new ArrayList<ConfigAttribute>();

            // Lookup your database (or other source) using this information and populate the
            // list of attributes

            return attributes;
    }

    public Collection<ConfigAttribute> getAllConfigAttributes() {
        return null;
    }

    public boolean supports(Class<?> clazz) {
        return FilterInvocation.class.isAssignableFrom(clazz);
    }
}

For more information, look at the code for DefaultFilterInvocationSecurityMetadataSource.

How do I authenticate against LDAP but load user roles from a database?

The LdapAuthenticationProvider bean (which handles normal LDAP authentication in Spring Security) is configured with two separate strategy interfaces, one which performs the authentication and one which loads the user authorities, called LdapAuthenticator and LdapAuthoritiesPopulator respectively. The DefaultLdapAuthoritiesPopulator loads the user authorities from the LDAP directory and has various configuration parameters to allow you to specify how these should be retrieved.

To use JDBC instead, you can implement the interface yourself, using whatever SQL is appropriate for your schema:

public class MyAuthoritiesPopulator implements LdapAuthoritiesPopulator {
    @Autowired
    JdbcTemplate template;

    List<GrantedAuthority> getGrantedAuthorities(DirContextOperations userData, String username) {
        List<GrantedAuthority> = template.query("select role from roles where username = ?",
                                                                                                new String[] {username},
                                                                                                new RowMapper<GrantedAuthority>() {
            /**
             *  We're assuming here that you're using the standard convention of using the role
             *  prefix "ROLE_" to mark attributes which are supported by Spring Security's RoleVoter.
             */
            public GrantedAuthority mapRow(ResultSet rs, int rowNum) throws SQLException {
                return new SimpleGrantedAuthority("ROLE_" + rs.getString(1);
            }
        }
    }
}

You would then add a bean of this type to your application context and inject it into the LdapAuthenticationProvider. This is covered in the section on configuring LDAP using explicit Spring beans in the LDAP chapter of the reference manual. Note that you can’t use the namespace for configuration in this case. You should also consult the Javadoc for the relevant classes and interfaces.

I want to modify the property of a bean that is created by the namespace, but there is nothing in the schema to support it.

What can I do short of abandoning namespace use?

The namespace functionality is intentionally limited, so it doesn’t cover everything that you can do with plain beans. If you want to do something simple, like modify a bean, or inject a different dependency, you can do this by adding a BeanPostProcessor to your configuration. More information can be found in the Spring Reference Manual. In order to do this, you need to know a bit about which beans are created, so you should also read the blog article in the above question on how the namespace maps to Spring beans.

Normally, you would add the functionality you require to the postProcessBeforeInitialization method of BeanPostProcessor. Let’s say that you want to customize the AuthenticationDetailsSource used by the UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter, (created by the form-login element). You want to extract a particular header called CUSTOM_HEADER from the request and make use of it while authenticating the user. The processor class would look like this:

public class BeanPostProcessor implements BeanPostProcessor {

        public Object postProcessAfterInitialization(Object bean, String name) {
                if (bean instanceof UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter) {
                        System.out.println("********* Post-processing " + name);
                        ((UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter)bean).setAuthenticationDetailsSource(
                                        new AuthenticationDetailsSource() {
                                                public Object buildDetails(Object context) {
                                                        return ((HttpServletRequest)context).getHeader("CUSTOM_HEADER");
                                                }
                                        });
                }
                return bean;
        }

        public Object postProcessBeforeInitialization(Object bean, String name) {
                return bean;
        }
}

You would then register this bean in your application context. Spring will automatically invoke it on the beans defined in the application context.



[15] See the introductory chapter for how to set up the mapping from your web.xml

[16] This feature is really just provided for convenience and is not intended for production (where a view technology will have been chosen and can be used to render a customized login page). The class DefaultLoginPageGeneratingFilter is responsible for rendering the login page and will provide login forms for both normal form login and/or OpenID if required.

[17] This doesn’t affect the use of PersistentTokenBasedRememberMeServices, where the tokens are stored on the server side.

[18] The FilterInvocation object contains the HttpServletRequest, so you can obtain the URL or any other relevant information on which to base your decision on what the list of returned attributes will contain.