Annotation Type Primary

public @interface Primary

Indicates that a bean should be given preference when multiple candidates are qualified to autowire a single-valued dependency. If exactly one 'primary' bean exists among the candidates, it will be the autowired value. This annotation is semantically equivalent to the <bean> element's primary attribute in Spring XML.

May be used on any class directly or indirectly annotated with @Component or on methods annotated with @Bean.


 public class FooService {
     private FooRepository fooRepository;

     public FooService(FooRepository fooRepository) {
         this.fooRepository = fooRepository;

 public class JdbcFooRepository {
     public JdbcFooService(DataSource dataSource) {
         // ...

 public class HibernateFooRepository {
     public HibernateFooService(SessionFactory sessionFactory) {
         // ...

Because HibernateFooRepository is marked with @Primary, it will be injected preferentially over the jdbc-based variant assuming both are present as beans within the same Spring application context, which is often the case when component-scanning is applied liberally.

Note that using @Primary at the class level has no effect unless component-scanning is being used. If a @Primary-annotated class is declared via XML, @Primary annotation metadata is ignored, and <bean primary="true|false"/> is respected instead.

Chris Beams
See Also:
Lazy, Bean, ComponentScan, Component